Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 37

This means simply that more fluent writers more efficiently access a greater number of words
and structures than less fluent writers. Polio (2001) expands on the concept: "If we find that
writers are more fluent on one writing task as opposed to another then that may tell us something
about the cognitive processes of completing the different writing tasks" (p. 106).
Further, on a more comprehensive note toward defining fluency, ACTFL (Breiner-
Sanders, Swender, & Terry, 2002) describe fluency as:
a flow in the written language as perceived by the reader, made possible by clarity of
expression, the acceptable ordering of ideas, use of vocabulary and syntax appropriate to
the context, with words, phrases, and idiomatic expressions that go together by common
lexical convention. (p. 8)
This definition takes into consideration the meaning or holistic expression achieved in
composition that can be measured by an overall composition score, for example, as obtained on a
holistic measure such as the ESL Composition Profile (Jacobs et al., 1981) in addition to the rate
of production. For the purposes of this investigation, fluency will be measured by the number of
words produced in a given period of time as well as a total composition score measuring overall
How imperative is grammar to "good writing," and what is the relationship of grammar
to writing? For many, "good writing" is characterized by linguistic or grammatical correctness
and "good use of language, including vocabulary" (Reichelt, 2003, p. 106). Grammatical
accuracy actually plays quite an important role in evaluating the overall quality of writing, and
problems with tenses, for example, can obscure meaning (Hinkel, 2002), yet as communicative
and process approaches of language instruction rose to preeminence, grammar lost favor.


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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/46/ocr/: accessed June 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .