Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 36
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the students relied heavily on their L1 as they were writing in their L2, but their motivation,
writing anxiety, and contact with native speakers of the L2 seemed to affect their L2 writing
processes and the quality of their products.
"Are you fluent?" is a question often asked of language learners, but what does being
fluent entail, and how does the term relate to written expression? Does the term "fluent" refer to
how closely one's writing approximates that of a native speaker or how much a writer is able to
compose in a given time? Fluency is commonly perceived as a state of production where
language becomes fairly automatic, and it is seminal to successful communication in writing.
Still, defining fluency in writing is a challenging task, not frequently addressed in the literature
or with contrasting definitions. Many researchers define fluency as simply the number of words
produced or the rate of production of text. This rate of production may be a count of words,
clauses or sentences in text (Chenowith & Hayes, 2001; Paulson, 1993) and is defined in this
manner to separate fluency the issue from proficiency, which takes into account grammatical and
lexical accuracy and complexity (Chenowith & Hayes, 2001).
Other researchers, however, operationally define fluency differently. Chandler (2003)
defined fluency as the amount of time that it took to write an assignment when a desired text-
length was specified. In another definition, Wolfe-Quintero, Inagaki, and Kim (1998) concluded
Fluency is not a measure of how sophisticated or accurate the words or structures are, but
a measure of the sheer number of words or structural units a writer is able to include in
their writing within a particular period of time. (p. 25)
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/45/?rotate=270: accessed June 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .