Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 35
1996), content (Hedgeock & Lefkowitz, 1992; Tsang, 1996), mechanics (Pennington & So,
1993; Hedgcock & Lefkowitz, 1992; Tsang, 1996), and coherence and discourse features using
the organization portion of the Jacobs scale (Tsang, 1996). The written products of students
alone do not give a clear picture of their processes while writing, thus researchers continue to
seek other means and methods such as think alouds while composing (Roca de Larios, Marin, &
Murphy, 2001; Jannausch, 2001/2002) and technology both to record and aid the writing process.
Writing and Affect
Another important vein to writing and second language acquisition is the concept that
writing can pose anxiety for writers. Using four language anxiety scales and a background
questionnaire, Cheng (2002) investigated students' foreign language writing, focusing on
variables such as learner differences, students' perceptions of their anxieties, and other forms of
language anxiety experienced in the classroom or with different modes of communication such
as speaking. The participants were Taiwanese English majors at the university level. The study's
results suggest that students' perceived writing competence is a better predictor for L2 writing
anxiety than of their actual L2 writing achievement. Low self-confidence appeared to be an
important component in the anxiety construct. The researcher concludes that foreign language
instruction should foster students' perceptions of their competence in addition to developing their
Writing apprehension is also a point of concern for Jannausch (2001/2002). Using think-
aloud protocols, questionnaires about motivation, observations of students' in-class behavior,
analyses of students' written products, and an examination of students' L1 and L2 writing
experiences, the researcher explored the writing processes of six American college students
enrolled in the researcher's German composition classes as foreign language (FL) learners. All
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/44/ocr/: accessed January 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .