Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 32

Instructors should understand what it means to communicate through writing and to keep
in mind that composition development is not equivalent to transcription, however
appropriate these may be for certain parts of a lesson. Composition involves a number of
processes including thinking, organizing, reflecting, adjusting, and later, editing. There is
no reason why the development of composition should wait until advanced stages of
language learning. Indeed, it should be present at all levels of instruction, including
basic language. (p. 271, emphasis added)
Writing traditionally may have been marginalized in the foreign language curriculum, but it is
now viewed more widely as an important function in second language acquisition. Grabe and
Kaplan (1997) declare that "knowing how to write is among the most important advanced
abilities that L2 learners need to develop" (p. 172), and Harklau (2002) calls for more emphasis
on writing in classroom-based studies of second language acquisition. She suggests that it is
important to study both how students learn to write in a second language and how students learn
a second language through writing.
While there is no universally accepted framework for inclusion of writing into foreign
language instruction at the intermediate-level, in a seminal volume entitled Rethinking Foreign
Language Writing, Scott (1996) postulated five hypotheses with regard to composition. They are
as follows:
1. Writing competence is a general notion that is not language specific.
2. The foreign language writing process differs from the native language process.
3. Computer-aided writing enhances the foreign language writing experience.
4. Correcting and evaluating foreign language writing are complex tasks that
involve the entire writing process.


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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/41/ocr/: accessed February 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .