Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 31

Foreign Language Writing
Foreign language writing theory and practice draw much from L1 writing and second
language acquisition, and Kassen (1995) provides a succinct explanation of the relationship:
From the first area, we have learned to view writing not merely as "writing down" but as
the complex interplay of cognitive processes by which writers discover and create
meaning (Emig, 1971; Flowers & Hayes, 1981; Osterholm, 1986). L2 acquisition
research, the second field, has demonstrated that learning a language is not simply habit
formation; rather it involves the expression of communicative intent as mediated by
various competencies, including grammatical, sociolinguistic, discursive, and strategies
(Canale & Swain, 1980; Hatch, 1983). Meaningful, purposeful, contextualized language
use is an essential component of numerous models of language acquisition, including
those based on input (Krashen, 1982; Krashen & Terrell 1983), output (Swain, 1985) and
interaction (Brumfit, 1984). (p. 100)
Even with such considerable contributions to language learning, for years writing has been
minimized as part of foreign language learning. The curriculum-theorizing of Sachs (1989) on
issues of the orality-literacy question or the rightful position of reading and writing in the foreign
language curriculum spurred reconsideration of writing in the course of study, and a growing,
continued interest in writing strengthened the argument that writing is one of the foremost skills
to be developed by a literate person. It is only fully into the mid-1990s that a more resounding,
urgent call was heard for increased attention to writing in the foreign language curriculum (Scott
1996; Greenia 1992a; Greenia 1992b). According to Lee and VanPatten (1995):
Writing should not be a neglected fourth skill in the communicative classroom, and
instructors should distinguish between writing activities and composition development.


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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/40/ocr/: accessed February 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .