Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 26

Certainly one of the most dominant models of language acquisition since its
popularization in the early 1980s is Krashen's monitor model with its five central hypotheses: the
acquisition-learning distinction, the natural order hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the input
hypothesis, and the affective filter hypothesis (Krashen, 1982). The first hypothesis is the
acquisition-learning distinction which states that adult acquisition is similar to the way children
develop language while learning refers to a conscious knowing and application of grammar. In
practice, then, language input during language instruction should not be grammatically
sequenced, and fluency emerges with time. The learner will acquire language structures in a
natural order, and the learner must be relaxed and focused on meaning rather than the forms of
grammar. Knowing grammar rules serve only as a "monitor" for self-correction.
Based on Krashen's model, Terrell's (1982) natural approach to language learning has
also greatly impacted the foreign language curriculum through an emphasis on communicative
competence in a natural order of language acquisition of a second language similar to the
learning of the first or native language (L 1). The main principles of his instructional approach
state that:
1. Beginning language instruction should focus on the attainment of immediate
communicative competence rather than on grammatical perfection.
2. Instruction needs to be aimed at modification and improvement of the student's
developing grammar rather than at building that grammar up one rule at a time.
3. Teachers should afford students the opportunity to acquire language rather than force
them to learn it.
4. Affective rather than cognitive factors are primary in language learning.
5. The key to comprehension and oral production is the acquisition of vocabulary.


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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/35/ocr/: accessed September 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .