Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 24
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While the National Standards do not specify methodology, they do address foreign
language writing as they encourage educators to engage students in foreign language writing
beyond the word and sentence level to include paragraphs and more cohesive texts. The Five Cs
within National Standards which address five areas of language learning or goals include:
Communication: Communicate in Languages Other than English
Cultures: Gain Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
Connections: Connect with Other Disciplines and Acquire Information
Comparisons: Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
Communities: Participate in Multilingual Communities at Home & Abroad
The Communication goal specifically addresses three standards that state that students
will engage in interpersonal written communication and the formal presentation of information,
concepts, and ideas in written form. Typically, students with little or no previous language
experience are most likely to produce written language that will contain a variety of newly
learned, yet mechanical, L2 language patterns or will look like English with words in the other
language. This is a natural process, and, over time, students begin to acquire authentic patterns
and to use appropriate styles.
Summary highlights of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines for writing (ACTFL, 2001)
characterize the intermediate-level writer and provide more specific suggestions for
incorporating writing into daily instruction:
by the ability to meet practical writing needs-e.g., simple messages and letters, requests
for information, notes-and ask and respond to questions; create with the language and
Here’s what’s next.
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/33/: accessed April 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .