Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 23
Standards for Foreign Language Learning
The field of foreign language learning has not been untouched by the standards
movement of the 1980s. Both the National Standards and the American Council on the Teaching
of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Proficiency Guidelines emerged in part as a result of pushes
from government and industry for accountability in language instruction, and their de facto
purpose in combination is to provide the foundation for foreign language curriculum and
instruction in the United States. The ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines were formulated as a result
of a special President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies created in
1978 under President Jimmy Carter and in an attempt to bring some agreement with regard to
language teaching (Omaggio Hadley, 1993). Another source for curriculum design in foreign
language is the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (commonly known
to language educators as the 5Cs) developed in 1996 in a collaborative venture by the American
Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, American Association of Teachers of French,
American Association of Teachers of German, American Association of Teachers of Italian,
American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, American Classical League,
American Association of Teachers of Russian, Chinese Language Association of Secondary-
Elementary Schools/Chinese Language Teachers Association, and the National Council of
Japanese Language Teachers/Association of Teachers of Japanese. This unprecedented
involvement and consensus amongst educators across a range of languages gave (and continues
to give) the National Standards added power to impact curriculum reform and study, and they
have become the assessment criteria used by many accreditation agencies. From the researcher's
analysis of state curricular documents, at least thirty states utilize the Standards to serve as the
framework for their implementation of foreign language instruction.
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/32/ocr/: accessed May 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .