Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 21

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
It has been said that "A picture is worth a thousand words," but only words unlock and
express the pictures and thoughts in one's mind; those telling words are the birth of true
communication. Lee and VanPatten (1995) define communication as the expression,
interpretation, and negotiation of meaning. Communicating one's thoughts, feelings, and
information is without a doubt an integral part of human interaction within the human
experience, and there is a sense of empowerment in good communication. Carroll (1980) states
that language is essentially a tool for communication, with oral and written language being the
modes through which knowledge and ideas are expressed and shared with others. Written
language and writing is a powerful means to clarify one' thoughts and put them down in a
concrete form of expression.
In one of the most widely accepted foreign language pedagogy handbooks, Omaggio
Hadley (1993) aptly states the quandary of foreign language teachers with regard to teaching
writing:
If learning to write in a second language were simply a matter of knowing how to
"write things down" in the new code, then teaching writing would be a relatively easy
task. A few minutes in each class period could be devoted to dictation, transcription, or
manipulative written exercises, and a few guided compositions could be assigned for
homework during the course of the semester, after which we could all rest easy because

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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/30/ocr/: accessed April 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .