Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 11
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express their thoughts and ideas. This decreases greatly the degree of fluency with which these
L2 writers can produce written text and express their ideas. Fluency in writing is a skill that
develops only through practice (Atwell, 1998; Calkins, 1983; Graves, 1975; Romano, 1987).
Students tend to struggle with fluent written expression because of limited vocabularies and
limited knowledge of grammatical structures. Although a student might write well in their L1,
these abilities do not necessarily "translate" into their L2; thus, fluent expression suffers. ACTFL
defines fluency in terms of production and comprehensibility as perceived by the reader; i.e., as a
flow in the language made possible by clarity of expression, the acceptable ordering of ideas, use
of vocabulary and syntax appropriate to the context, with words, phrases, and idiomatic
expressions that go together by common lexical convention. The concept of fluency thus
encompasses the components of organization, grammar, and vocabulary in communication and
not simply the number of words produced in a given period of time. Few studies actually
separate the concepts of fluency and accuracy or measure fluency in any way other than a rate of
production or the number of words produced in a given time (Chandler, 2003); thus, it is
significant to define fluency in a more comprehensive manner.
The role of grammar. Although writing is impacted considerably by the learners'
knowledge of grammar, the role of grammar in language acquisition continues to be a highly
contested and controversial issue in foreign language instruction. The pedagogical and
philosophical continuum ranges from support of explicit grammar instruction to the support of
implicit grammar instruction and all points in between. Krashen (1999), father of the monitor
model, maintains a difference between grammar teaching that contributes to language learning
but not true language acquisition which is primarily impacted by comprehensible input. Terrell
(1991), however, has affirmed that there is a role for grammar in a communicative approach.
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/20/: accessed May 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .