Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 9
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number of Hispanics in the United States, has strengthened the need for increased literacy in
Spanish. Individuals who are capable of communicating using reading and writing in more than
one language on an advanced level open the door to greater business opportunities and increased
avenues for success.
As previously indicated, knowing a foreign language can achieve higher purposes that
reach beyond the individual. Knowing a foreign language can open doors to greater
understanding and acceptance among people of different cultures. Coupling this concept with
writing increases exponentially the potential for social change. Leki (2003) posits that "in a
democracy, writing is a powerful tool for justice" (p. 318). Writing gives voice to people wanting
to express their emotions or make their opinions known. This concept of writing as an avenue for
social justice can only reinforce the powerful means of expression and advancement that is
The importance of the role of writing in learning is also evident in the amount of research
on writing in both first and second languages (Greenia, 1992b; Harklau, 2002; Kroll, 2003; Scott,
1996). In 1992, the Journal of Second Language Writing was founded to publish theoretically
grounded reports of research and discussions of central issues in second and foreign language
writing and writing instruction. Some areas in which research has been done at the university
level include: personal characteristics and attitudes of L2 writers, L2 writers' composing
processes, features of L2 writers' texts, readers' responses to L2 writing, assessment/evaluation
of L2 writing, and contexts (cultural, social, political, institutional) for L2 writing. While the
journal has had more articles published regarding English as a Second Language (ESL) learners,
it also includes foreign language learners. ESL and foreign language learners share some
similarities in second language acquisition and second language learning processes. ESL
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/18/?rotate=90: accessed March 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .