Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 131
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and application of grammar and grammar rules. Yet, it is important to note that Terrell (1991)
stated that explicit grammar instruction may positively affect language acquisition.
The positive attitude of students regarding the use of technology to write is of great
consequence. Gillespie and McKee (1999) defined the successful integration of CALL into the
curriculum at their institution by the quality of the student work produced and the degree of
acceptance by students. These benchmarks certainly seem reasonable, especially at the university
level, since access to technology can often be restricted and time to incorporate into the
curriculum can also be limited. In this study, the students' quality of composition improved
across both groups, and they held very positive attitudes with regard to technology-enhanced
language learning. This echoes the previous work of Scott (1996) who affirms that computer-
aided writing enhances the foreign language experience. Additionally, Pennington (2003) draws
from her extensive research on the writing of English language learners and presents models of
positive and negative paths in computer writing effects. While her models address characteristics
of the ESL population, the concepts can apply to learners in a foreign language context who face
writing with computers. Pennington outlined cognitive-affective responses of awareness and
attitudes that interact with behavioral responses of quantity, quality, and manner. On the positive
path, students have an awareness of computer capabilities for the writing process as well as a
positive attitude to computer and writing. The behavioral response observed could be writing at
length with high levels of content coverage and a physical and cognitive ease in writing seen in
recursive patterns. On the negative path, students are unaware or have low awareness of
computer potentials for writing. Students also have negative attitudes to computer and writing.
The behavioral response can be limited writing in quantity and quality as well as a physical and
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/140/: accessed January 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .