Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 130
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unlimited time. Even with that in mind, the consensus from students in the control group was
quite positive regarding writing with technology:
My writing and communications skills in this language have vastly improved.
The technology was really helpful w/grammar, writing and organizing my thoughts in
This course helped me write & listen in Spanish more proficiently. The labs when we
type Spanish compositions really helped a lot.
Doing all the writing in the computer lab helped tremendously in learning how to use the
The experimental group appeared somehow more reserved than the control group in their
responses to the questions. Possibly they were disenchanted with going to lab every week (the
researcher, for instance, overheard a couple of students groaning under their breath about
"having" to go to lab). Some were positive about the technology experience but missed the
connection between knowing grammar and improving writing:
The focus on technology in this course through intense lab time has helped on writing the
foreign language but not so helpful in grammar.
Furthermore, the class had more of a writing slant, which allowed students to focus on
applying what we learned from style and grammer (sic) to papers and compositions.
Main focus on grammar and especially verb conjugation. Did not look holistically at the
language and therefore did not help to think and write in the language, only translating.
The comments by the last student reflect the language acquisition-learning distinction
proposed by Krashen (1982) that states that adult language acquisition is similar to the way
children develop language versus language learning which emphasizes the conscious knowing
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/139/: accessed May 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .