Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 127
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Germany, and Russia in the database and also searched for (but did not find) Austria. This would
be an example of a limitation of the database. In addition, the logging feature cannot track the
scrolling that students do within the dictionary.
Since the emphasis of this study was to examine the effects of grammar and vocabulary
practice, it was appropriate to analyze the Atajo logs to determine whether the students' inquiries
were either grammar-type inquiries or vocabulary related. Work by Baily (1992/1993) on learner
compensation strategies observable from Systime-D logs provided an initial point of departure
for a more detailed framework for the coding of Atajo logs. The strategies she taught and
observed were Adjusting the Message, Circumlocution, Synonym, and New Words. All of these
strategies are vocabulary related (adjusting the message to fit terms that students could look up,
using synonyms, or creating words that might be literal translations or using English words in a
new term); thus, any such inquiries were coded as vocabulary. In a similar fashion, dictionary
inquiries intended to find grammar (such as the previous example of looking up "would" in the
dictionary for the conditional tense) were counted as naive grammar. Such inquiries were
inefficient and fruitless in that they did not produce the desired construction. Thus, Vocabulary-
related usage is a count of the inquiries that resulted in incorporation of a meaningful Spanish
word in the composition. Grammar Reference, Phrases Reference, and Vocabulary Reference are
usage of the corresponding databases. General Inquiries encompassed misspellings,
inappropriate searching of the Spanish dictionary for an English word and vice-versa, repeat
inquiries, scrolling in the dictionary, and words not in the dictionaries.
Data analysis revealed that the total usage of Atajo by the experimental group declined by
almost 50% from Composition 1 to Composition 3 while it increased slightly for the control
group. Increased familiarity with Atajo by the experimental group may have attributed to some
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Reference the current page of this Dissertation.
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/136/: accessed February 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .