Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 124
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subscales except for Mechanics, which was equal for the experimental and the control groups.
Vocabulary and Grammar/Language Use subscales showed the highest percentage gains in mean
scores. The visible trends in the data in the mean plots (Figures 3-8) between Composition 1 and
Composition 3 also indicate that Spanish Partner did have a small to moderate effect overall and
especially on grammar and vocabulary. Krashen (1999) indicates that the successful application
of consciously learned rules of grammar involves knowledge of the rule; concern with
correctness, or focus on form; and sufficient time. The behavior exhibited by the experimental
group may, therefore, be an indication of their formal rule knowledge of grammar gained by
computer practice. Findings by Liou, Wang, and Hung-Yeh (1992) showed that instruction plus
CALL impacted writing more than instruction plus homework. Results suggest that classroom
instruction combined with grammatical CALL is helpful to writing, parallel to the present study.
Additionally, examination of the standard deviation changes in total composition score
from Composition 1 (Table 10) to Composition 3 (Table 11) reveals a noteworthy finding. The
standard deviation decreased by 4.02 for the experimental group from Composition 1 to
Composition 3, while the change for the control group was only 0.56. In interpreting these
results, the decreased standard deviation for the experimental group illustrates less variability in
total composition score on Composition 3. Greatly improved performance for some students on
the final composition may indicate that the treatment of grammar practice was beneficial to the
students who scored lowest on Composition 1. This is supported by Frantzen's (1995)
intervention study of an intermediate Spanish content course, where the results suggested that
grammar review is a beneficial addition in spite of there being no significant differences between
groups in terms of their scores on writing samples.
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/133/: accessed December 14, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .