Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 123
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one word per minute. One reason for the control group's increase in number of words per minute
from Composition 1 to Composition 3 may have been increased familiarity with and efficiency
in using the Atajo software.
The decrease in the experimental group's words per minute was negligible. At the same
time, however, data analysis revealed that the total usage of Atajo by the experimental group
declined by almost 50% from Composition 1 to Composition 3. While fluency remained static in
terms of number of words produced, composition quality increased. Thus, it is possible that the
practice with Spanish Partner increased students' facility in accessing their own personal
lexicons, which in turn increased automaticity in the production of the vocabulary and
grammatical structures needed for their compositions. This concept of technology integration to
promote fluency of automaticity of prerequisite skills is supported by Roblyer (2003). Usage of
Atajo increased slightly from Composition 1 to Composition 3 for the control group.
The second part of the fluency issue was how will the systematic use of a grammar
practice software program (Spanish Partner) affect the quality of L2 learners' compositions as
measured by total composition score, and the subscale areas of Content, Organization,
Vocabulary, Grammar/Language Use, and Mechanics (spelling, accentuation, and punctuation)?
The researcher hypothesized that students with grammar and vocabulary practice would produce
better quality compositions on the total composition score as well as the Vocabulary and
Grammar/Language Use subscales. There were no statistically significant differences between
the two groups on any of the variables related to quality, reflecting that changes in writing
improvement are often not seen at the end of only one course of study (Greenia, 1992b).
However, the percentage of positive change on the mean scores between Composition 1 and
Composition 3 (including the subscale areas) is greater for the experimental group on all
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/132/: accessed February 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .