Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 122
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revealing statistically significant results. In addition, improving writing performance is a lengthy
process and often a measurable change does not occur in one course (Greenia, 1992b).
Discussion of Findings
Previous research has often defined fluency simply as the number of words, clauses or
sentences written in a given period of time (Chandler, 2003; Chenowith & Hayes, 2001; Paulson,
1993). As ACTFL defines it, fluency is "a flow in the written language as perceived by the
reader, made possible by clarity of expression, the acceptable ordering of ideas, use of
vocabulary and syntax appropriate to the context, with words, phrases, and idiomatic expressions
that go together by common lexical convention" (ACTFL, 2001, p. 14). This latter definition is
more in line with the National Standards and curriculum guidelines and supports the essential
assumption that writing is an act of communication. Thus, greater proficiency in grammar and
vocabulary should yield increased fluency in L2 written composition.
The first two research questions in this study sought to measure the effects of grammar
and vocabulary practice on students' fluency, specifically composition quantity and quality. How
would scaffolding provided by the use of a grammar and vocabulary practice software program
(Spanish Partner) affect quantity in L2 students' compositions as measured by the total number
of words per composition? The researcher hypothesized that students with grammar and
vocabulary practice would produce a greater number of words during composition after grammar
and vocabulary practice. The results of the analyses were not statistically significant to reject the
null hypothesis. The overall words per minute from Composition 1 to Composition 3 showed
minimal changes for both groups. The control group's increase was slightly greater, yet less than
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/131/: accessed February 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .