Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 110
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dictionary feature of Atajo with Vocabulary-related usage and General Inquiries having the
largest means. Only one student in the control group and two students in the experimental group
consulted the databases for Grammar, Phrases, and Vocabulary. In Composition 3, the control
group made more General Inquiries (M= 18.65 versus M= 13.90) and Vocabulary-related
inquiries (M= 12.87 versus M= 11.10) than the experimental group as well as total overall
For use in repeated measures ANOVA, the change in usage was calculated for the three
categories of Total usage of Atajo (Table 21), Vocabulary-related (Table 22), and General
Inquiries (Table 23). There was a statistically significant difference in all three measures: they
were F(1, 50) = 13.06, p < .01;F(1, 50) = 18.44, p < .01; and F(1, 50) = 8.06, p < .01,
Analysis of Variance of Change in Total Inquiries by Group
Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F p
Between 1 7754.33 7754.33 13.06 .001
Within 50 29678.50 593.57
Total 51 37432.83
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/119/: accessed March 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .