Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 94
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No statistically significant results were found on any of the independent t-tests. However,
it is very important to note that the percentage of change on the mean scores between
Composition 1 and Composition 3 (Table 12) is higher for the experimental group in all
measures except for Mechanics, which was equal for the experimental and the control.
Mean Differences Between Composition 1 and Composition 3*
M % SD M % SD t
Total Score 3.46 3.46 8.47 5.90 5.90 8.67 -1.03
Content 0.81 2.70 3.20 1.23 4.10 2.42 -0.54
Organization 0.63 3.15 1.51 1.06 5.30 1.79 -0.92
Vocabulary 0.92 4.60 2.07 1.58 7.90 2.13 -1.12
Grammar 0.67 2.68 2.38 1.65 6.60 3.01 -1.30
Mechanics 0.35 7.00 0.49 0.35 7.00 0.65 0.00
Control n= 26; Experimental n= 26
Evaluation of Total Composition Score and Rubric Subscales
A mixed two factor ANOVA, which is a type of repeated measures ANOVA, was
employed to look at the differences between the experimental and control groups over time on
the total composition score as well as the subscales of Content, Organization, Vocabulary,
Grammar/Language Use, and Mechanics. While there were no statistically significant differences
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/103/: accessed July 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .