Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 92
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The researcher hypothesized that students with grammar and vocabulary practice would
produce a greater number of words during composition after grammar and vocabulary practice.
Stated in the null:
H-0 There is no significant difference over time in the increase in the number of words
produced by students who have computer grammar practice and those who do not. Data shows
that there was no statistically significant difference over time in the increase in the number of
words per minute between the control and experimental groups; therefore, the researcher was not
able to reject the null hypothesis.
Research question 2: How will the systematic use of a grammar practice software
program (Spanish Partner) affect the quality of L2 learners' compositions as measured by total
composition score, and the subscale areas of Content, Organization, Vocabulary,
Grammar/Language Use, and Mechanics (spelling, accentuation, and punctuation)?
All compositions were graded by two graders and the interrater reliability was .81. In 17
cases where the graders disagreed by more than 10 points on the total composition score, the
researcher served as a third grader. The 10-point difference is cited in Jacobs et al. (1981) as the
standard for reliability with scores with greater than 10 points difference necessitating an
additional grader. The two closest scores were averaged and that score used for analyses.
Composition 1 yielded a Cronbach's alpha of 0.82 and Composition 3 Cronbach's alpha = 0.80.
Measures of improvement on the total composition as well as each component subscale
of the composition rubric were examined at two levels. Gain scores were examined on the
descriptive level as well as with independent t tests for Composition 1 (Table 10) and
Composition 3 (Table 11).
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/101/: accessed May 1, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .