Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 91

total inquiries made to Atajo databases, the range of usage was very broad, and thus the median
was utilized for all replacements.
Research Questions
Research question 1: How will scaffolding provided by the use of a grammar and
vocabulary practice software program (Spanish Partner) affect quantity in L2 students'
compositions as measured by the total number of words per composition?
Writing sessions during class varied across students. Atajo logs revealed that composition
times ranged from 28 to 49 minutes. Thus, in order to examine quantity of writing production, it
was necessary to calculate words per minute in order to conduct a repeated measures ANOVA to
test the interaction effects or treatment of grammar and vocabulary practice on composition
performance by occasion (pre-test/post-test) for quantity of words produced. On Composition 1,
the control group wrote M= 3.58 words per minute while the experimental group wrote M= 3.74
words per minute. On Composition 3, the control group wrote M= 4.27 words per minute while
the experimental group wrote M= 3.61 words per minute. Although there was a slight gain for
the control group, a repeated measures ANOVA on the change in words per minute showed no
statistically significant difference between groups F(1, 50) = 2.54, p =.12.
Table 9
Analysis of Variance for Change in Words per Minute from Cl to C3 by Group
Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F p
Between 1 8.81 8.81 2.54 .12
Within 50 173.63 3.47
Total 51 182.44

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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/100/ocr/: accessed April 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .