Tantalum- and ruthenium-based diffusion barriers/adhesion promoters for copper/silicon dioxide and copper/low κ integration.

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The TaSiO6 films, ~8Å thick, were formed by sputter deposition of Ta onto ultrathin SiO2 substrates at 300 K, followed by annealing to 600 K in 2 torr O2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of the films yielded a Si(2p) binding energy at 102.1 eV and Ta(4f7/2) binding energy at 26.2 eV, indicative of Ta silicate formation. O(1s) spectra indicate that the film is substantially hydroxylated. Annealing the film to > 900 K in UHV resulted in silicate decomposition to SiO2 and Ta2O5. The Ta silicate film is stable in air at 300K. XPS data show that sputter-deposited Cu (300 ... continued below

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Zhao, Xiaopeng December 2004.

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  • Zhao, Xiaopeng

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The TaSiO6 films, ~8Å thick, were formed by sputter deposition of Ta onto ultrathin SiO2 substrates at 300 K, followed by annealing to 600 K in 2 torr O2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of the films yielded a Si(2p) binding energy at 102.1 eV and Ta(4f7/2) binding energy at 26.2 eV, indicative of Ta silicate formation. O(1s) spectra indicate that the film is substantially hydroxylated. Annealing the film to > 900 K in UHV resulted in silicate decomposition to SiO2 and Ta2O5. The Ta silicate film is stable in air at 300K. XPS data show that sputter-deposited Cu (300 K) displays conformal growth on Ta silicate surface (TaSiO6) but 3-D growth on the annealed and decomposed silicate surface. Initial Cu/silicate interaction involves Cu charge donation to Ta surface sites, with Cu(I) formation and Ta reduction. The results are similar to those previously reported for air-exposed TaSiN, and indicate that Si-modified Ta barriers should maintain Cu wettability under oxidizing conditions for Cu interconnect applications. XPS has been used to study the reaction of tert-butylimino tris(diethylamino) tantalum (TBTDET) with atomic hydrogen on SiO2 and organosilicate glass (OSG) substrates. The results on both substrates indicate that at 300K, TBTDET partially dissociates, forming Ta-O bonds with some precursor still attached. Subsequent bombardment with atomic hydrogen at 500K results in stoichiometric TaN formation, with a Ta(4f7/2) feature at binding energy 23.2 eV and N(1s) at 396.6 eV, leading to a TaN phase bonded to the substrate by Ta-O interactions. Subsequent depositions of the precursor on the reacted layer on SiO2 and OSG, followed by atomic hydrogen bombardment, result in increased TaN formation. These results indicate that TBTDET and atomic hydrogen may form the basis for a low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for the formation of ultraconformal TaNx or Ru/TaNx barriers. The interactions of sputter-deposited ruthenium with OSG at 300 K have been studied by XPS for Ru coverages from ~ 0.1 monolayer to several monolayers, using in-situ sample transfer between the deposition and analysis chambers. The results indicate Stranski-Krastanov (SK) type growth, with the completion of the first layer of Ru at an average thickness corresponding to 1 monolayer average coverage. Ru(0) is the only electronic state present. XPS core level spectra indicate weak chemical interactions between Ru and the substrate. A less pronounced tendency towards SK growth was observed for Ru deposition on parylene. Deposition of Ru on OSG followed by electroless deposition of Cu resulted in the formation of a shiny copper film that failed the Scotch® tape test. Results indicate failure mainly at the Ru/OSG interface.

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  • December 2004

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  • Feb. 15, 2008, 3:43 p.m.

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Zhao, Xiaopeng. Tantalum- and ruthenium-based diffusion barriers/adhesion promoters for copper/silicon dioxide and copper/low κ integration., dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4672/: accessed December 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .