Battle for the Punchbowl: The U. S. 1st Marine Division 1951 Fall Offensive of the Korean War Page: 301

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Now to summarize our offensive, though they turned down
the Kojo operation [one of the Amphibious hooks planned in
1951], which with very few casualties we could have gotten
some results, we had a frontal assault against one mountain
range after another, just to keep pressure on the North
Koreans-pressure that cost us 2,000 casualties in the 1st
Mar Div.
-Lt Gen Gerald C. Thomas
September 20 marked the end of the mobile phase of the war for 1st Mar Div. "On
That day the warfare of movement came to an end, and the warfare of position began."
This was the end of the final offensive the 1st Mar Div fought in Korea. "On 16
September, the Eighth Army had ordered X Corps to suspend all major offensive
operations after 20 September. Van Fleet had decided that further attacks along the
Hays Line could not be justified. The 1st Marine Division would now have to hold the
ground it had seized, however unfinished its work."1
Half of Kanmubong Ridge (Hills 1052, and 980) was still in enemy hands, but there
were now 4,500 more yards (beyond the Hays Line) of Korean soil behind the
Minnesota Line (the Hays Line was renamed the Minnesota Line to include the real-
estate taken in September, this was the new MLR). The total number of miles gained
above the Kansas Line, the starting point for the offensive, was approximately ten to
fifteen, depending on the location in question. Phase Two of the battle had cost the
Marines almost 2,000, with 254 KIA. The entire month of September (not just phase two
of the battle) wrought 2,416 total losses in 1st Mar Div (KMCs included). Casualties for
Lynn Montross, et al., The East-Central Front, 198; Allan R. Millett, Many a Strife, 310.


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Montandon, Joshua W. Battle for the Punchbowl: The U. S. 1st Marine Division 1951 Fall Offensive of the Korean War, thesis, August 2007; Denton, Texas. ( accessed October 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library,; .