Battle for the Punchbowl: The U. S. 1st Marine Division 1951 Fall Offensive of the Korean War Page: 11

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of the Navy was "set at rest with some emphasis in the debate and hearings on Public
Law 416, during which Congress avowed that the Marine Corps was not a mere
appendage, but a Service in its own right." But there was more. "As stated in Navy
Regulations... the Naval Establishment embraces all activities committed to the care
of the Secretary of the Navy, and thus includes the Marine Corps. This does not make
the Marine Corps a part of, but rather a partner of the Navy proper."4
The Fleet Marine Forces themselves are combined arms forces of land, air, and
sea components divided into two commands, based on either of the two main coasts of
the United States, Atlantic and Pacific. "Each includes a force headquarters, force
troops, elements of the service command, divisions and brigades, and wings and
groups." These Fleet Marine Forces are "integrated with the several U.S. fleets," and,
"have the status of a fleet command . . . subject to the operational authority of the
respective fleet commanders, except that the conduct of individual -intra-unit training is
retained by the Commandant of the Marine Corps, who also retains administrative
control." So while the 1st Mar Div was under the operational control of the Eighth U.S.
Army in Korea, this was a departure from the normal operational relationship it would
have had as an element of the Operating Forces of the U. S. Navy. (See Charts # 2 and
3) This was done under the clause of the National Security Act giving the Marines the
mission of "such other duties as the President may direct," and tradition wherein Marine
Corps elements were attached to Army command in the War of 1812, the Mexican War,
World War I, and various operations in World War II, all before the said act was written.
Ordinarily or at least, ordinarily under Navy command, the FMF has its operational
planning done by "the unified commands through the naval component commands to
4 Thomas, Heinl, and Ageton, Marine Officer's Guide, 72-73, 74.


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Montandon, Joshua W. Battle for the Punchbowl: The U. S. 1st Marine Division 1951 Fall Offensive of the Korean War, thesis, August 2007; Denton, Texas. ( accessed December 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library,; .