A Theory-of-Planned-Behavior Perspective on B2C E-Commerce Page: 93
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orientation can be influenced by individual differences, product of choice and the type of retailer. Local
shopper orientation measures the customer's attitude towards purchasing at local stores (Hawes et al.,
1984). Technology orientation refers to a person's level of comfort in using technology for the purpose of
shopping (Dickerson et al., 1983), and time concern orientation measures a person's attitude towards
scheduling activities and organizing time in the context of shopping.
2.3 Shopping Criteria
Shopping criteria are defined as the dimensions based on which the customer selects a shopping outlet,
such as customer service, shopping environment, merchandise assortment and convenience of shopping.
Research on shopping criteria was pioneered (Tauber, 1972) and later developed (Gentry et al., 1977-8).
Subsequent studies suggest that customers make purchases for a variety of reasons, including needs
fulfillment, replenishment of stocks, non-performance of existing products, perceived superiority of
another product (Lamb et al., 2007), among other features (Barat, 2007).
Research suggests that customer service incorporates several dimensions: reliability (ability to perform
the service right the first time), responsiveness (ability to provide prompt service), assurance (knowledge
and courtesy of employees) and empathy (caring, individualized attention to customers) (Lamb et al.,
2007). Naturally, the buyer is likely to use customer service as a criterion in deciding where and from
whom to shop.
Typically, online shopping environment is influenced by distraction or 'noise', deal retraction, image,
price/value comparison, quality and quantity, and loyalty towards a website (Bruner et al., 1992).
Therefore, the authors argue that the shopping environment will be a likely factor in the customer's
Research also suggests that two characteristics of merchandise are critical: discrepancy of assortment
and of quantity. A vendor might choose an extensive or limited distribution strategy for its merchandise
depending on how widely it wants its products to be available to customers (Lamb et al., 2007).
Therefore, we argue that merchandise is a key shopping criterion for the customer.
Finally, convenience is regarded as the ease with which a customer can participate in the shopping
experience. Since the customer is time-constrained due to multitasking, the authors argue that he/she is
likely to consider convenience as an important dimension of his/her shopping exercise.
Given that younger online shoppers do a lot more multitasking and are tech-savvy, they are likely to value
the benefit of time-savings (time concern orientation) and ability to use technology (i.e. technology
orientation) much more than their older counterparts. However, younger shoppers are less likely to
patronize local stores (local patronage orientation) and more likely to shop away from home (homebody
orientation) than their older counterparts, who prefer to shop closer to home (Preez et al., 2007).
Low-income shoppers, on the other hand, are more skeptical about online security and are more likely to
touch and feel a product before purchase, when compared to their higher-income counterparts
(Moskalyuk, 2008). In other words, it appears that convenience plays an important role.
Local shopper orientation affects customer's shopping behavior both directly and indirectly (Hawes et al.,
1984). Customer service, shopping environment (Bearden, 1977) and product assortment/merchandise
(Hopper and Lippscomb, 1991) are some of the main components of the local shopper orientation.
Customers also look for 'convenience'-based criteria (Schiffman et al., 1977), such as brand choices
(Alba et al., 1997), attractive prices (Kalwani et a1.,1990) and comparison shopping (Gentry and Burns,
1977-8) in making their purchase decisions. Consequently, we argue that customers with 'local shopper'
orientation will emphasize these criteria in their decision to buy online, which motivates us to frame the
following set of propositions:
Pla: Higher the local shopper orientation of the individual, higher is the importance placed on
customer service as a criterion for shopping
REVIEW OF BUSINESS RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3, 2010
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Ganesh, Gopala & Barat, Somjit. A Theory-of-Planned-Behavior Perspective on B2C E-Commerce, article, 2010; [Tula, Russia]. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc38884/m1/2/: accessed September 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Business.