Mineral Facts and Problems: 1960 Edition Page: 75
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(GATT), was lowered to 2.8 cents on June
30, 1956, to 2.7 cents on June 30, 1957, and to
2.5 cents on June 30, 1958. Compounds of ar-
senic not specified in the tariff act are dutiable
at 121/2 percent of their foreign market value.
Usually, white arsenic is shipped in bulk (car-
lots) in covered hopper cars. Occasionally,
shipments are made in wooden barrels contain-
ing 600 to 650 pounds. For jobbing, white
arsenic is packed in casks of 100 pounds or more,
and for the retail trade it is sold in packages of
1 to 10 pounds.
Arsenic metal usually is shipped in lumps in
sealed iron drums or kegs containing 200
Arsenic metal, white arsenic, arsenic acid,
arsenate of lead, calcium arsenate, and other
arsenicals are classed as dangerous articles by
the Interstate Commerce Commission and must
be packed, marked, certified, labeled, and de-
scribed according to the Regulations for Class
RESEARCH BY INDUSTRY, INSTITUTIONS,
About midyear 1956, the American Smelting
and Refining Co. announced that new com-
pounds possessing the water-repellent proper-
ties of conventional silicones and the fungicidal
and pesticidal properties of arsenicals had been
synthesized in the company's Central Research
Laboratories. Known as arsonosiloxanes, the
compounds are believed to have particular
value for use in damp locations or humid at-
mospheres to protect materials from deteriora-
tion due to moisture and insect attack.
Electrical insulations, canvas enclosures, and
leather products are a few of the materials that
might be well protected by the arsonosiloxanes.
The American Smelting and Refining Co. in-
vestigation showed that arsenic can be incor-
porated into siloxane structures by formation
of Si-O-As bonds in chemical reactions be-
tween organic chlorosilanes and organic arsonic
Various applications of the new compounds
are being investigated with the cooperation of
chemical companies producing arsenical com-
Research at the Battelle Memorial Institute
included arsenic coating of steel, brass, copper,
nickel, and other metals by passing arsenic
(metal) vapor over the surface to be coated.
This process produced hard, rather brittle but
adherent, heavy coatings of intermnetallic com-
pounds having good resistance to some acids,
alkalis, and salts. The results, as well as ex-
ploratory work on various arsenic-containing
alloys, have indicated that arsenic may have a
field of usefulness as an inexpensive addition
and surfacing metal. Additions of arsenic in-
crease the resistance of cast iron and steel to
some acids, but the action is not outstanding
enough for arsenic to be used extensively for
The American Smelting and Refining Co.
conducts an intensive research program in de-
veloping arsenicals and studying their applica-
tions, particularly as weed killers and
The immediate outlook is for the world and
United States outputs of white arsenic to con-
tinue at the 1955-58 level. The long-term out-
look is for reduced world production in view
of the accelerated depletion of minable by-
product arsenic in Sweden.
In the United States the recovery of white
arsenic will parallel the changes in production
of copper and lead.
The demand for white arsenic probably will
continue to be unstable because of the tempo-
rary immunity developed by pests to specific in-
secticides and weather conditions in areas that
use calcium and lead arsenates for pest control.
Expansion of several relatively new uses for
white arsenic that may increase consumption
includes chemical debarking of trees for pulp-
wood; control of aquatic plantlife in ponds and
lakes; and use of arsenic trioxide for soil ster-
ilization along railroads, irrigation ditchbanks,
1. One of the basic problems of the arsenic
industry is the highly fluctuating demand for
arsenical insecticides, the principal market for
2. A marketing problem exists in the con-
sumers' resistance to use of arsenical insecticides
and weed killers when other products, pre-
sumably less toxic to humans and animals, are
3. Owing to its byproduct relationship to
other metals, particularly copper and lead, pro-
duction of white arsenic cannot be readily ad-
justed to highly fluctuating demand.
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United States. Bureau of Mines. Mineral Facts and Problems: 1960 Edition, report, 1960; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc38790/m1/83/: accessed October 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.