Mineral Facts and Problems: 1960 Edition Page: 62
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MINERAL FACTS AND PROBLEMS, ANNIVERSARY EDITION
United States imports of ore from Mexico and
The entry of the United States into World
War II caused rapid expansion of domestic
smelter capacity based on Western Hemisphere
ores. Consumption soared; recovery of anti-
monial alloys from scrap reached an unprece-
dented peak, and domestic antimony mines
again became active. Flameproofing chemicals
and paints were the major use items of World
Demand for consumer products kept con-
sumption high in the postwar period. The
Korean War stimulated consumption to new
heights. Flameproofing chemicals and paints
again displaced battery grids as the major use
item for antimony, and domestic mines were
The years following the Korean conflict saw
U.S. mine production again slowed to insignif-
icance. Secondary production reached an all-
time high level, complementing a large domes-
tic smelter industry supplied by imported ores
and byproduct materials.
SIZE, ORGANIZATION, AND GEOGRAPHIC
DISTRIBUTION OF THE INDUSTRY
Industries of the world annually consume
50,000 tons of primary antimony. An estimated
equal amount is regenerated each year from
scrap. The antimony mining industry is con-
centrated in relatively few mining organiza-
tions in China, Union of South Africa, Bolivia,
and Mexico. In addition, approximately 30
metal smelters and refineries produce antimo-
nial materials as byproduct from processing
ores containing antimony as an impurity. The
antimony consuming industry is represented by
thousands of companies concentrated in the
more industrialized areas of Europe and North
America. The secondary producing industry,
depending upon scrap from alloy consumption,
is necessarily centered in the highly industrial-
ized countries of the world.
Except during periods of abnormally high
demand, the antimony mining industry of the
United States is inactive. One company mines
antimony as a byproduct of lead-silver ores,
and several companies recover byproduct anti-
mony from processing intermediate smelter
products such as lead bullion. Byproduct anti-
mony is 35 percent of the annual output of
U.S. smelters; 65 percent of the country's
smelter production is derived from imported
ores and concentrates. The leading company
supplies 35 percent of the total; the second
largest company supplies 20 percent; and the
other seven companies supply the remaining 45
Approximately 100 companies, centered in
the industrial belt of the Eastern United States,
account for more than 85 percent of the total
consumption of primary antimony.
National Lead Co., Laredo, Tex., produces
metal and commercial oxide from Mexican oxi-
dized ores. American Smelting & Refining Co.
produces antimonial lead and some metal and
oxide as a byproduct at its lead refineries at
Omaha, Neb., and Perth Amboy, N.J. Sun-
shine Mining Co., Coeur d'Alene region, Idaho,
produces antimony metal from tetrahedrite
concentrates. Harshaw Chemical Co., McGean
Chemical Co., Metal & Thermit Corp., and
Evans Lead Division of National Lead Co. pro-
duce oxide from imported antimony ores for
use in their industrial processes. Hummel
Chemical Co., Ceramic Color & Chemical Man-
ufacturing Co., and Foote Mineral Co. produce
small quantities of powdered sulfide for use in
matches, pyrotechnics, glass, and rubber. Col-
lectively, these companies produce 11,000 to
15,000 tons of contained antimony annually.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS, GRADES, AND
Antimony metal, termed "regulus" is usually
marketed in units 10 by 10 by 21/2 inches, var-
iously known as blocks, bars, or pigs. Nomen-
clature in this regard is not fixed. Average
weight is approximately 60 pounds to the bar.
Metallic antimony is sold under the brand
names of the producing companies. Although
a brand name represents a guarantee of anti-
mony content, and frequently of maximum ar-
senic content, brand names do not denote a
fixed analysis of many minor but significant
constituents. Purchase contracts are usually
written by the seller and include a "typical"
analysis that is representative of the material
sold under the specified brand name. No sam-
ples are taken before delivery; however, analy-
sis is made at the buyer's plant to determine
the exact composition of any constituents that
are critical to his operation.
The leading domestic brands follow:
(1) National Lead Co.'s RMM brand, which
has a guaranteed antimony content of 99.5 per-
cent and a maximum arsenic content of 0.1 per-
cent, and (2) National Lead Co.'s Lone Star
brand, which has a guaranteed antimony con-
tent of 99.8 percent, arsenic maximum of 0.05
percent, and no other single impurity exceed-
ing 0.1 percent.
Uses of high-purity antimony in the elec-
tronics industry led to production of antiniony
99.999+percent pure. The metal carries no
brand names. Known producers are Bunker
Hill Co., Kellogg, Idaho; Associated Lead
Manufacturers, Ltd., Ibex House, Minories,
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United States. Bureau of Mines. Mineral Facts and Problems: 1960 Edition, report, 1960; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc38790/m1/70/: accessed September 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.