Mineral Facts and Problems: 1960 Edition Page: 54
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MINERAL FACTS AND PROBLEMS, ANNIVERSARY EDITION
will be held in reserve by owners for their own
use. Therefore, if demand for the larger sizes
continues downward and industrial demand re-
mains stable or increases substantially, the in-
dustry ultimately will either have to obtain a
greater proportion of the small sizes from deep
mines and strip pits or crush the larger sizes.
Recourse to either of these alternatives will
necessitate additional research in mining and
The U.S.S.R. for many years has led the
world in anthracite production, with Pennsyl-
vania anthracite second. However, the United
States is the world's largest exporter with mar-
kets as far distant as Viet-Nam. Europe and
Canada are the largest buyers of American an-
thracite; however, 1958 exports declined slight-
ly more than 2 million tons, owing to a drop
of about 1.7 million in shipments to Europe
and about one-quarter million tons in exports
to Canada. While the decline in shipments to
Europe is attributable to excess stocks, in-
creased consumption of other fuels, mild
weather, and competition from British and
Russian anthracite, the slump in the Canadian
market, as in the United States, has been
caused primarily by increased competition
from petroleum and natural gas. Unfortu-
nately, the export losses of 1958, both to Eu-
rope and Canada, consisted predominantly of
the larger space-heating sizes. Table 6 pre-
sents statistics on U.S. exports. Data on world
production are shown in table 7.
Although the United States imported con-
siderable tonnages of anthracite during strike
years and the depressed 1930's, the volume
dropped sharply during World War II. After
the war years, Great Britain attempted to re-
main in the American market by making small
shipments to the New England area. By 1955
she was forced out of this market by a com-
bination of declining production and rising
costs. In recent years all imports have origi-
nated in Canada. However, as no anthracite
is being produced in that country, the import
data shown in table 4 for the period 1955-58 un-
doubtedly represents bituminous coal brought
into the United States for reexport.
STRATEGIC OR DEFENSE CONSIDERATIONS
The strategic or defense implications of an-
thracite are closely related to the location of
the deposits in northeastern Pennsylvania. The
producing area is closer to the major fuel mar-
kets along the Atlantic seaboard north of
Maryland than any other fuel. Hence, it has
less requirements for transportation. This ad-
vantage places anthracite, to the extent of its
availability, in a position to replace other fuels
which become less available to these markets
in wartime. During World War II anthracite
supplies were not adequate for the expanded
demand, and a strict allocation program had to
be instituted by the Federal Government. Even
under all the wartime restrictions, anthracite
production increased nearly 25 percent from
1940 to 1944.
PRICES, WAGES, AND COSTS
Quoted f.o.b. mine prices of anthracite fluc-
tuate seasonally. Sales and producing com-
panies customarily offer discounts around
April 1 to encourage consumer and retail-
dealer purchases during the summer months.
Beginning in June monthly increases are made
until winter prices are established, usually in
October. In 1959 these discounts averaged ap-
proximately $2 per ton on the larger sizes and
$0.75 per ton on Buckwheat No. 2 (Rice). No
discounts were offered on Barley.
In the August 1, 1959, issue of Saward's
Journal representative quotations f.o.b. mine
ranged between the following limits: Broken,
TABLE 6.-Anthracite exported from the United States
[Thousand short tons]
Country 1957 1958 Country 1957 1958
North America: Europe:
Canada_ -- -- _ _ 1--_ 1, 779 1, 523 Belgium-Luxembourg----- 243 -------
Cuba_------------------- 101 34 France__ ---__--------- 1,036 334
Other countries_ --___ - 1 1 Germany (West)--------- 15
Greece_----------------- 42 9
Total- 1, 881 1, 558 Italy------------------- 258 73
Netherlands------------, 762 220
South America: Other countries----------- - ---------- 4
Brazil_ _---- ---------- 7 20
Other countries ---------- 4 (1) Total--- ------------ 2, 356 640
Asia ----------------------- 84 62
Total----- .-_-11 20
Grand total------------ 4, 332 2, 280
1 Less than 500 tons.
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United States. Bureau of Mines. Mineral Facts and Problems: 1960 Edition, report, 1960; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc38790/m1/62/?rotate=270: accessed November 19, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.