Mineral Facts and Problems: 1960 Edition Page: 49
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FIGUBE 3.-Continuous Cutting-Loading Machine Used on Experimental LongwaU Face Worked Cooperatively by
the Bureau and a Company.
total underground production of this field in
1958, 84 percent was loaded mechanically. The
moderately and steeply pitching beds of the
other anthracite fields are not easily adaptable
to mechanical loading systems. Hence, only 17
percent of the deep-mine coal from these fields
was machine loaded. One-half of the coal pro-
duced from deep mines throughout the region
in 1958 was loaded by machines. A large part
of the so-called hand-loaded anthracite is from
pitching seams and is loaded by gravity from
chutes directly into the mine cars.
STRIP M G
Strip or surface mining methods of extract-
ing anthracite are carried on by drilling, blast-
ing, and removing the strata overlying the
coalbed along its outcrop and then excavating
the coal. As anthracite beds usually are steeply
pitching along the outcrops, strip mines are
long, narrow, and relatively deep. The pri-
mary consideration in strip mining is the ratio
between overburden and recoverable coal.
Current stripping practices utilize the full
variety of modern earthmoving equipment-
power draglines and shovels, carryalls, bull-
dozers, front-end loaders, large trucks, etc. Im-
provements in earthmoving equipment over the
years have enabled operators to mine eco-
nomically at increasing depths. In 1958 nearly
one-third of the total anthracite production was
from mines of this type.
CULM AND SHLT BANKS
During the early years of anthracite mining,
no appreciable market existed for Pea and
smaller sizes, as equipment was designed to
burn only the larger coal. Consequently, large
quantities of the small sizes were piled along
with refuse from the cleaning plant in the
large culm and silt banks through the anthra-
cite region. Development and use of automatic
stokers and improvements in grates, boilers, and
firing techniques at commercial and industrial
installations created a growing demand for the
smaller sizes. With better coal-cleaning meth-
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United States. Bureau of Mines. Mineral Facts and Problems: 1960 Edition, report, 1960; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc38790/m1/57/: accessed May 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.