Mineral Facts and Problems: 1960 Edition Page: 39
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pound of pig. The average price of pig in the
United States in 1953 was 19.7 cents a pound.
The Tariff Act of 1930 established an import
duty of 4 cents a pound on crude aluminum.
This was reduced to 3 cents in 1939. Pursuant
to the General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade the duty was reduced to 2 cents a pound
in 1948 and to 1 cents in June 1951. Further
negotiations under the agreement in 1956 re-
sulted in three periodic reductions to the 1.25
cents a pound tariff that became effective July
1958. At that time the duty on typical alumi-
num manufactures was 3.5 cents a pound plus
17 percent ad valorem.
Much of the aluminum produced in the
Pacific Northwest has been shipped to consum-
ing areas east of the Mississippi River. The
proximity of the new plants in the Ohio River
Valley to the consuming areas results in lower
transportation costs. Movement of alumina,
by rail, from the alumina plants in the South
Central United States to the consuming plants
in the Northwest and Northeast represents a
considerable item of cost.
As described in the section, Defense Pro-
gram, the Government, through direct financ-
ing or incentives, has encouraged expansion of
the aluminum industry from the mine through
semifabricating facilities. Government pro-
grams have focused on promotion of a com-
petitive industry and have resulted in the entry
of new producers and assured that part of the
production from new facilities will be made
available to nonintegrated consumers of crude
aluminum. Government policies relating to
the development of power in agricultural areas
have also had a profound effect on the forma-
tion and location of the industry.
To hold markets won by displacing tradi-
tionally used materials and to continue to ex-
pand into new fields and applications, the alu-
minum industry, in 1958, spent more than $25
million on research and product development.
This expenditure included research on bauxite
and alumina production and utilization,
Industrial research covers the entire field of
metal production, from the reduction cell,
through the development of alloys and casting
techniques, the study of protective and decora-
tive finishes, and detailed investigations of end
use applications of the metal. The producers
develop technical data for their own use, as
well as for the use of their customers.
Over the years, intensive efforts to improve
the efficiency of the reduction step have re-
sulted in significant decreases in power and
manpower requirements. In 1938 power re-
quirements were 10 to 11.5 kw.-hr. per pound
of metal produced. Plants built since 1950 re-
quire only 7.5 to 8.5 kw.-hr. per pound. Man-
power requirements have decreased from
nearly 40 manhours per ton in 1939 to 24
manhours in 1954.
The industry's continuing alloy research pro-
gram has resulted in the development of alloys
with increased strength at elevated tempera-
tures, increased electrical conductivity and im-
proved corrosion resistance. Anodizing pro-
cesses have been developed to protect and color
aluminum surfaces. Methods of surface treat-
ment and new basic materials have been devel-
oped in recent years to increase the commercial
application of aluminum products protected by
From 1955 to 1959 the aluminum industry
directed a major part of its end product devel-
opment effort toward the automotive industry.
The success of the effort was shown by the in-
creased use of aluminum in automobiles and
recent adoption of an air-cooled aluminum en-
gine by one manufacturer. Applications in
architecture and home building and packaging
and containers also have been the subject of in-
The Bureau of Mines at the Northwest Elec-
trodevelopment Experiment Station, Albany,
Oreg., began research late in 1951, under a co-
operative agreement with Apex Smelting Co.
of Chicago, to develop a smelting technique for
producing aluminum-silicon alloy in a 3-phase
ferroalloy-type are furnace. A mixture of
hogged fuel and coke proved to be promising
as a reducing agent. Based on the work at
Albany, the National Metallurgical Corp., a
subsidiary of Apex Smelting Co., installed a
commercial-size furnace for the production of
silicon at Springfield, Oreg.
Subsequently, the Bureau conducted inde-
pendent smelting research on the use of wood
chips and coke in an arc furnace to smelt alu-
minum silicates containing 20 to 55 percent
alumina, as a means of recovering aluminum
from nonbauxitic sources. The early phases
of this research have been described (3).
The Bureau of Mines was also investigating
methods for producing commercial-grade alu-
minum from the crude aluminum-silicon alloys
made by carbothermic reduction of domestic
clays. One method involved leaching the crude
alloy with molten zinc to selectively dissolve
the aluminum, which was then recovered by
distillation of the zinc.
The Bureau has also initiated research on the
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United States. Bureau of Mines. Mineral Facts and Problems: 1960 Edition, report, 1960; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc38790/m1/47/: accessed September 19, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.