The common white wheats. Page: 11
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The Common White Wheats. 11
Section 2.-HEADS BEARDLESS; CHAFF GLABROUS (NOT VELVETY),
WHITE OR YELLOW; SPRING WHEATS.
The varieties grouped under section 2 are spring wheats having
beardless heads; glabrous white chaff; and soft. semihard, or hard
white kernels. The heads of most of these varieties are slender and
pointed, but a few have compact, square, or club-shaped heads.
Although these varieties are true spring wheats, several of them are
grown also from fall sowing in areas having mild winters.
The Pacific Bluestem variety (the Bluestem wheat of the Pacific
Coast States) also is known under the names Australian, Chile,
Palouse Bluestem, White Australian, White Bluestem, White Chile.
and White Elliott. This variety has beardless heads with yellowish
white to light brownish chaff and soft to semihard white kernels.
The heads are erect and nearly square, although they taper slightly
at the tip (Fig. 5, A). The chaff is stiff and wide and not easily
broken off. The kernels are of medium size and rather soft, but
harder than those of some of the common white varieties. Pacific
Bluestem is a true spring wheat, but is grown as a winter wheat in
the mild climate of California and Arizona and occasionally in
Pacific Bluestem is a very old variety of wheat. It formerly was
called White Lammas and was the leading variety of wheat in Australia
during the early years of wheat production in that country.
The variety was introduced from Australia into California during
the early fifties. In California this wheat is generally known as
White Australian, but in the Pacific Northwest it is called Bluestem.
It was introduced into the latter section in 1882 and was first grown
in the Walla Walla Valley of Washington. Pacific Bluestem has
been for many years the most widely grown variety of common
white wheat and is still the leading spring wheat in the Pacific
This variety is grown in all States west of the Rocky Mountains.
It is of most importance in Washington, California, Idaho, and
Oregon. It was estimated that more than 1,350,000 acres of it were
grown in the United States in 1919 (Fig. 6).
Pacific Bluestem is the principal variety of wheat grown in the
Sacramento Valley of California. There it usually is sown during
the fall or winter, and by many growers it is considered a winter
wheat. Until recently no variety of wheat has been able to compete
with Pacific Bluestem (White Australian) in that section. Since
1918, however, the use of Baart, Bunyip, and a few other varieties
has increased -rapidly, but none has yet exceeded Pacific Bluestem in
the acreage grown. In the San Joaquin Valley Baart usually outyields
it. On the irrigated lands of southern California and Arizona
it usually is outyielded by Baart, Defiance, and Sonora.
In the Palouse district of eastern Washington and Idaho Pacific
Bluestem is the leading variety of spring wheat. It usually is outyielded
by winter varieties in this section. In eastern Washington,
eastern Oregon, and northern Idaho, where the annual rainfall ex
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Clark, J. Allen (Jacob Allen), b. 1888; Martin, John H. (John Holmes), 1893- & Leighty, C. E. (Clyde Evert), b. 1882. The common white wheats., book, December 1922; Washington D.C.. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3477/m1/11/: accessed September 18, 2021), University of North Texas Libraries, UNT Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.