Access to Knowledge: a guide for everyone Page: 61
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Alternative ways of sharing
As explained in the introduction to the last chapter, the A2K movement
combines a reactive or responsive agenda, and also a proactive or pos-
itive agenda. Until now, most has been written about the responsive
agenda, which includes adding new exceptions to copyright law that al-
low for more "fair uses", opposing enforcement practices such as cutting
accused users off from the Internet, and fighting the extension of content
owner's rights through stealth using technology like DRM.
The following section will turn to the positive agenda that involves
the promotion of alternatives to market-based models of copyright or
patent-protection, such as the open source movement, open access pub-
lishing, and Creative Commons, as well as collective licensing schemes
3.1 Public domain
The public domain is an intellectual property designation for the range of
content that is not owned or controlled by anyone. These materials are
"public property", and available for anyone to use freely for any purpose.
The public domain is most often discussed in contrast to works whose
use is restricted by copyright.
Under modern law, most original works of art, literature, music, etc.
are covered by copyright from the time of their creation for a limited pe-
riod of time (which varies by country). When the copyright expires, the
work enters the public domain.
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Noronha, Frederick & Malcolm, Jeremy. Access to Knowledge: a guide for everyone, text, 2010; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33297/m1/71/: accessed February 17, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .