Access to Knowledge: a guide for everyone Page: 21
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response"-style enforcement (see 2.3.3).
Microsoft, as the world's dominant software publisher since the early
1990s, is notable for its history of opposition to some of the measures
used to advance access to knowledge, including free and open source
software and open standards.
On the former count, Microsoft ran a "Get the Facts" campaign from
2004 to 2007 which directly attacked the GNU/Linux operating system
platform, and has sued vendors of free and open source solutions for
patent infringement, including the TomTom GPS company for its use of
the Linux kernel implementation of Microsoft's FAT filesystem (the law-
suit was settled in 2009).56
Other open source distributors, including Novell, which markets
SuSE Linux, have entered into licensing deals with Microsoft in order to
avoid a lawsuit.
In relation to Microsoft's position on open standards, the company
is known for its policy of "embrace, extend and extinguish," whereby it
would appear to embrace an open standard, but then introduce its own
proprietary extensions to the standard with which other implementa-
tions would not be interoperable, resulting in Microsoft's implementa-
tion extinguishing those of competitors by reason of the former's domi-
nance in the market.57
In other cases, Microsoft has simply developed its own standard in or-
der to compete against a more open one, as in the case of its Office Open
XML (ISO/IEC 29500), which was introduced in response to the success
of the XML-based open standard for office documents, the OpenDocu-
ment Format (ISO 26300:2006).
In response to anti-competitive behaviour of Microsoft, competition
commissions in both Europe and the United States have initiated action.
Amongst the outcomes of these actions have been the requirement that
Microsoft share interoperability information with its competitors, the de-
coupling of Microsoft's Windows Media Player from the European ver-
sion of the operating system, and the introduction of a "browser ballot"
56 Fried, Ina, Microsoft, TomTom settle patent dispute. 2009 (URL: http://news.cnet.com/
57 Rodger, Will, Intel exec: MS wanted to 'extend, embrace and extinguish' competition.
1998 (URL: http://www.zdnet.com/news/intel- exec-ms-wanted- to- extend- embrace-
and- extinguish- competition/ 100925).
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Noronha, Frederick & Malcolm, Jeremy. Access to Knowledge: a guide for everyone, text, 2010; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33297/m1/31/: accessed February 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .