Access to Knowledge: a guide for everyone Page: 13
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suited in developing countries being able to block plans by their de-
veloped counterparts to expand intellectual property treaties through
WIPO. This resistance was evident in the 1960s and 1970s when develop-
ing countries blocked expansion plans such as universal pharmaceutical
To get around this stand-off, developed countries led by the United States
in the 1980s moved the discussion on intellectual property standard-
setting out of WIPO and into a forum where the developed countries are
better able to get their way - the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT). GATT eventually evolved into the World Trade Organisation and
the American "forum shifting" strategy led to the enactment of the Agree-
ment on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
The inclusion of IP norms in a global trade agreement arose from the
Uruguay Round of the GATT negotiations between 1986 and 1994, follow-
ing strong corporate lobbying by multinational pharmaceutical, software
and entertainment industry groups.
The TRIPS convention largely incorporates the substantive content of
the WIPO-administered conventions, but with the important difference
that it treats non-compliance as a barrier to trade, and enables the WTO
to impose sanctions on member countries in breach. It also provides for
the resolution of disputes between nations through the WTO.
The Development Agenda
By 2001, the backlash against TRIPS from the developing world had
gained traction, and in that year, the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and
Public Health confirmed the existence of flexibilities to TRIPS that al-
low developing countries to issue compulsory licenses for pharmaceu-
tical patents to address public health concerns.
The adoption of the Doha Declaration was another contributing step
towards the emergence of a coordinated movement against the IP maxi-
malist agenda of developed countries, as pushed by powerful IP export-
ing industries. It was also the beginning of a close link between the IP
agendas of the access to medicines movement and the A2K movement.
A further watershed in this process was the eventual adoption in
September 2007 of a "Development Agenda" for WIPO.19 The Develop-
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Noronha, Frederick & Malcolm, Jeremy. Access to Knowledge: a guide for everyone, text, 2010; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33297/m1/23/: accessed February 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .