New Descriptions, Intraspecific Variation and Systematic Importance of Drumming Behavior in Selected North American Plecoptera Page: 2
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Maketon, Monchan, New Descriptions, Intraspecific
Variation and Systematic Importance of Drumming Behavior in
Selected North American Plecoptera. Doctor of Philosophy
(Biology), December, 1986, 189 pp., 119 illustrations, 9
tables, bibliography, 63 titles.
Drumming behavior is described for the first time in
33 North American Plecoptera species, and signals of an
additional five species, Pteronarcys pictetii, Acroneuria
abnormis, Paragnetina media, Clioperla clio and 1sogenoides
zionensis, are further detailed.
An out-group comparison of behavioral characters in
all 104 world species whose drumming is known showed that
the behavior is more advanced in the Arctoperlaria Group
Systellognatha than in the Group Euholognatha. In general,
tapping, monophasy, touching, sequenced exchange and less
than 50 taps/answer are ancestral states, and rubbing,
grouping, phasing, tremulation, interspersed exchange and
equal or more than 50 taps/answer are derived states.
There has been some co-evolution between abdominal
structure and drumming behavior. Scanning Electron
Micrographs of 30 species showed that the primitive state
of tapping is ascociated with three classes of abdominal
structure: (1) absence of derived structures, (2) lobes or
vesicles, and (3) hammers. The derived behavior of
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Maketon, Monchan. New Descriptions, Intraspecific Variation and Systematic Importance of Drumming Behavior in Selected North American Plecoptera, dissertation, December 1986; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332213/m1/2/: accessed February 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .