Questions Used by Teachers with Skilled and Less Skilled Readers

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This study described the way teachers used questions with skilled and less skilled readers during reading instruction. The cognitive level and functions of questions were analyzed based on data collected through direct observation within the natural environment of the classroom. In addition, the patterns of questioning which included wait-time and sequencing of questions were identified and reported. Twenty sixth grade teachers randomly selected from a metropolitan school district were observed while instructing skilled readers and less skilled readers. Data collected during non-participatory observation of reading instruction through audiotape recordings, a low-inference observation instrument, and field notes were analyzed using the ... continued below

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ix, 340 leaves: ill., map

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Loring, Ruth M. August 1986.

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  • Loring, Ruth M.

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This study described the way teachers used questions with skilled and less skilled readers during reading instruction. The cognitive level and functions of questions were analyzed based on data collected through direct observation within the natural environment of the classroom. In addition, the patterns of questioning which included wait-time and sequencing of questions were identified and reported. Twenty sixth grade teachers randomly selected from a metropolitan school district were observed while instructing skilled readers and less skilled readers. Data collected during non-participatory observation of reading instruction through audiotape recordings, a low-inference observation instrument, and field notes were analyzed using the chisquare statistic, log-linear analysis, and descriptive statistics. Each question/response/response loop which occurred during the eighty observations was analyzed as to the cognitive level and function of the question, designation and wait-time of the student's response, the appropriateness, type, and length of the student's response, and the content of the teacher's response. Within the limitations of this study, the following conclusions have been formulated. 1. Teachers use different cognitive levels of questions for particular functions as dictated by the specific needs and characteristics of the students in the skill level. 2. Although teachers ask the majority of questions at the cognitive-memory and convergent levels rather than the higher divergent and evaluative levels among both skilled and less skilled readers, the primary function is that of extending. It appears that teachers use questions as a way of encouraging student participation during reading instruction. 3. Among both skilled and less skilled readers, teachers practice a fast pace approach to questioning, waiting an average of one to two seconds for a response. 4. Paths of sequence for question/response/response loops are similar for both skilled and less skilled reading groups. The function of extending typically followed focusing and clarifying, demonstrating the teacher's apparent effort to include as many students as possible during instruction.

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ix, 340 leaves: ill., map

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  • August 1986

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  • Aug. 22, 2014, 6 p.m.

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  • April 18, 2016, 12:42 p.m.

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Loring, Ruth M. Questions Used by Teachers with Skilled and Less Skilled Readers, dissertation, August 1986; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc331752/: accessed June 25, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .