Ethics of Teaching: Beliefs and Behaviors of Community College Faculty Page: 25
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bodies across the nation. It is important to note, however,
that following several well-known challenges to affirmative
action, the nation is re-evaluating the efficacy and
appropriateness of these types of diversity programs.
Action by the U.S. Supreme Court leaves affirmative action,
argued for the past quarter-century in state and lower courts,
unresolved for public colleges and universities. One case
challenged the University of Maryland's Benjamin Banaker
Scholarship for its designation as an African-American-only
award. The Hopwood Case in Texas attacked race-based preference
in college admissions and scholarships. In California, the Civil
Rights Initiative eliminated the state's affirmative action
programs in public higher education institutions. The Supreme
Court's decision not to hear an appeal on Hopwood puts case law
stemming from the Texas case at odds with the earlier 1978
Supreme Court decision in Bakke v. University of California
As public institutions phase out affirmative action
programs, private campuses may offer an attractive alternative
to minority students and others who consider affirmative action
programs not only necessary, but also vital to educational
parity. Occidental College, for example, espouses the belief
that diversity happens when excellence meets equity (Wallace,
1996). Occidental's organizational culture includes stated goals
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Scales, Renay Ford. Ethics of Teaching: Beliefs and Behaviors of Community College Faculty, dissertation, August 2002; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3212/m1/31/: accessed May 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; .