Ethics of Teaching: Beliefs and Behaviors of Community College Faculty Page: 16
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individual rights take precedence (Goodin 1993; Davis 1993). In
addition to moral theory, there are other theories about ethics.
In the field of applied ethics, the focus is on the assessment
of behavior in professional situations. This may be referred to
also as situational ethics (Anderson & Davies, 2000). In other
words, the scenario dictates what is ethical.
Since ethical beliefs change through a historical process,
adults view ethics as inexact and subject to the influences of
social values and public interests (Steckmast, 1982). Some
researchers conclude that there is but one way to transfer
desired ethical standards to behaviors: coercion. Our only
recourse to behavior gone awry, they claim, is to appeal to the
same self-interests that led to the ethical breach in the first
place (O'Brien, 1991).
Counelis' (1993) used four approaches in his studies on
ethics and moral behavior. The first, inquiry, poses a question
or questions about ethics to a target population. The second,
systematic study and moral reflection, mimics that practiced in
psychology, as in Bandura's cybernetic social learning theory.
Third, Counelis believes we might study morality in relation to
the cultural, political, economic, social, and natural
environment. The fourth and last is a normative science
approach. Counelis recommends formal study of ethical
reasoning, moral value, virtue and virtues, duties and
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Scales, Renay Ford. Ethics of Teaching: Beliefs and Behaviors of Community College Faculty, dissertation, August 2002; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3212/m1/22/: accessed May 26, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; .