Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Disorders: Their Relationship and Reduction with Neurotherapy Page: 21
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survival analysis related to the times series further yielded notable trends that showed that
participants experienced the most gains in total sleep time during sessions 15 to 30 and that
sessions beyond 50 sessions produced only minimal gains or decreases. Although Johnson and
Bodenhamer-Davis did not specifically investigate changes in psychopathology, they reported
that those participants who completed neurofeedback the fastest reported significant increased
energy, which loaded on the Mental State construct derived from factor analysis. This suggested
that changes in at least 1 factor related to psychological well-being may have been related to
changes in sleep quality and ultimate treatment outcome.
In summary, neurofeedback appeared to be a relatively effective treatment for symptoms
of insomnia as demonstrated in 2 controlled (Cortoos et al., 2010; Hoedlmoser et al., 2008) and 1
uncontrolled study (Johnson & Bodenhamer-Davis, 2009). Moreover, these promising results
were obtained with small sample sizes (Cortoos et al., 2010; Hoedlmoser et al., 2008) and
limited neurofeedback sessions (Cortoos et al., 2010). It seemed reasonable to conclude that
neurofeedback may be a relatively powerful treatment for symptoms of insomnia as statistically
significant improvements were obtained despite the use of small sample sizes and limited
treatment sessions - factors known to limit statistical power. In addition, Johnson and
Bodenhamer-Davis (2009) demonstrated that, on average, all participants' sleep improved
following neurofeedback - even those without initial sleep complaints - and that changes in
mental energy might play a role or at least correlate with gains in total hours slept.
Research on Neurofeedback for Depression and Anxiety
There are no published controlled outcome studies for neurofeedback for depression, and
this void has been noted elsewhere (Walker, 2007; Yucha & Montgomery, 2008). Thus, the
Association for Applied Psychophysiology (AAPB) rated neurofeedback for depression as
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Fisher, Christopher, Alan. Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Disorders: Their Relationship and Reduction with Neurotherapy, dissertation, August 2010; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31533/m1/29/: accessed May 7, 2021), University of North Texas Libraries, UNT Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; .