Analysis of Management and Employee Job Satisfaction Page: 98
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Regardless of what management may believe the basis of job satisfaction to be, Kay and
Jordan-Evans (1999) suggested that the surest way of knowing is to ask the employees what is of
value to them. According to Kay and Jordan-Evans, the question that management should ask
when a good employee leaves is not "'Why didn't they tell me"' but instead, "'Why didn't I
ask?"' (p. xvii). Abrashaff (2001) tells the manager/supervisor to "recruit your people everyday,
even though they are already on board" (p. 91) and "you have to grow your people to grow your
business" (p. 91). If Peters (2001) is correct, the need to communicate with each individual
employee has never been greater. According to Peters, business is transitioning from a period
when "promise them everything" was important (early 1990s 2000) to a period when
"performance and getting results" will be critical to a manager's survival. Performance and
results are directly connected to managers being able to communicate with their employees and
to increasing the individual's level of job satisfaction.
This study combined this philosophy and a survey whose development started with
Pritchard and Shaw's (1978) 257 rewards. Seven experts from both business and academia were
asked to comment on Pritchard and Shaw's reward topics.
Any factor whose category was not agreed upon by at least five of the seven experts
would not pass to the questionnaire development phase. Analysis of the feedback from the seven
experts resulted in the decision to categorize 97 reward topics before developing a data collection
instrument. The 97 reward topics were combined into seven category topics, with the following
Organizational Communication: the "informing of information process" used by management to
all employees as well as the "listening process" whereby management listens to employees and
accepts advice from all members of the organization.
Employee Development Opportunities: includes having a career path within the organization and
the presence of a career-planning program that enhances the abilities of the individual employee.
Employee development represents the degree to which organizational culture provides
employees with growth paths that include advancement opportunities, career counseling, and
training of new skills.
Intrinsic Rewards: rewards of a nonmonetary nature, such as recognition and the degree to
which employees feel that they have control over the presence of an intrinsic reward as well as
the opportunity to exert their influence. Intrinsic factors include such nonmonetary rewards as
public recognition, letters of recognition, praise, certificates of accomplishments, use of
personally determined methods of doing the job, and flexible work breaks.
Work Conditions: include the physical work area, safety conditions, oppressive individuals, and
demands generated by management on the output of employees (such as required overtime and
working to the point at which mental and physical problems develop). The conditions include
convenient restrooms, rest areas, liquids and food at workstations, and the ability to take breaks
when the employee feels the need.
Employee Interaction: type and quality of interaction that employees experience with their peers
and their management representatives. Interaction includes the amount of involvement that
management representatives have with management representatives in other areas of the
organization and the extent to which upper management desires and demonstrates interaction
with employees at all levels of the organization.
Compensation: monetary-related benefits that include competitive pay; a fair pay system; and
benefits such as retirement, medical insurance, life insurance, dental insurance, and paid vacation
time. This includes medical, insurance, and retirement forms of compensation.
The International Journal of Applied Management and Technology, Vol 2, Num 2
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Andrews, Charles G. & Allen, Jeff M. Analysis of Management and Employee Job Satisfaction, article, 2004; [Baltimore, Maryland]. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31078/m1/2/: accessed April 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Information.