Register of Debates in Congress, Comprising the Leading Debates and Incidents of the Second Session of the Eighteenth Congress Page: 56
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APPENDIX—To Gales &> Seaton'a Register.
2d Session* '
Navy and Marine Corps—Indians.
glanced at, but cannot be suitably discussed, in this re-
port. Tlie situation of our country, the nature of its terri-
tory and its coasts, the extent of its commerce, the cha-
racter of its institutions, and its political connexions, all
point unerringly to that establishment, as the security
for its peace and its honor. It no longer remains a de-
batable ([ucstion, whether we shall look to the navy as
One of the means by which our interests are to be most
cheaply and most securely protected. It has been set-
tled by a course of events which have carried the nation
forward to a point where, on this subject, it has scarce-
ly the liberty to choose. It has interests to protect, and
duties to discharge, which it cannot, if it would, disre-
gard. The problem now to be solved by it is, in what
n ode our naval means may be commanded most surely,
and with the least possible burthen, combining most ef-
ficiency with the smallest expense.
The answer is believed to be plain. By giving
to our officers the greatest amount of science and skill,
by fitting1 all to command the vessels we may choose to
build, and the seamen we may be enabled to enlist. By
these means, and these only, may we, in times of quiet,
keep in employment as small a number of vessels as
our commerce may absolutely require : and yet, at the
moment of trouble, swell it to the full extent which our
protection may demand, and the number of our seamen
will permit; the latter being the only limit which can
be placed to our naval power. It is not, however, in
this circumstance alone, that well-instructed officers will
induce economy : the better instructed and more intel-
ligent an officer is, the more skilfully and precisely, and,
of course, the more economically, will he perform the
duties assigned him. Ig-norance is always, skill never,
prodigal. There is no business, profession, or occupa-
tion, m the circle of society, to which this principle ap-
plies with more energy, than to our naval establishment.
Discipline and efficiency, also, necessarily result from
the same cause.
Educated in such a school as it becomes the Govern
ment to establish, moral principles are secured, good ha-
bits formed, subordination learned, honorable feelings
encouraged and confirmed, skill acquired, science and
discipline necessarily combined.
The illustration of these truths is before us in another
branch of our national defence, to which the favor of the
Government lias been extended; and the suggestion
will be pardoned, that no sound argument can be urged
in its favor, which does not receive additional force from
the situation in which the Navy is placed, and the inter-
ests and hopes which are connected with it.
Our future national conflicts are to rest principally on
it, come when they may. It also is the bearer of our ho-
nor and our fame, to every foreign shore. The Ameri-
can naval officer is, in fact, the representative of his
country in every port to which he goes, and, by him, is
that country in a greater or less degree estimated. With
a well-regulated national pride, this consideration alone
should ensure him ample means of instruction and im-
A school, to be useful to the Navy, must combine the-
ory with practice. It must, therefore, be located where
the attention may be directed to the construction, equip-
ment, armament, and sailing, of vessels. Governor's
Island, in the harbor of New York, seems to be well fit-
ted for all these objects. The buildings and improve-
ments already upon it, with slight alterations and re-
pairs, would probably be sufficient for present accom-
modation ; and, if the public interests would permit its
transfer for a time from the War to the Navy Depart-
ment, and an appropriation were made of $10,000, for
the support of instructors, the school might be put into
operation with very little delay, and its permanent loca-
tion be hereafter determined.
1 beg leave to refer to a report from this Department,
dated 1st day of January, 1824, expressing an opinion
of the propriety and necessity of augmenting the num-
ber of «r sloops of war, as a means of increasing the
efficiency and economy of tke service, and to add, that
the experience of the past year has amply confirmed
the reasons there presented.
There are other alterations, which are not suggested*
as they are supposed to be within the power of the De-
partment. Some have been made within the last year,
and others will hereafter receive attention. Among the
former, are the General Order which was issued respect-
ing the arrest and trial of offieers, and a regulation by
which any person, before he can receive an appointment
as surgeon's mate, or, being a mate, be promoted to the
rank of surgeon, must pass, successfully, a rigid exami-
nation before a board of competent surgeons, both as
to his moral character and his professional attainments,
especially in all that relates to the duties of his particu-
lar office. The operation of these rules need not be
explained : they have thus far been found most salutary.
The preceding remarks contain the " opinion" callcd
for by the resolution, so far as respects the Navy.
In relation to the Marine Corps, I have the honor to
submit various papers, marked 1 and 2, which contain
the views presented by the Commandant of the Corps,
in reference to its numbers and organization. They
furnish satisfactory evidence that an augmentation of it
is required, and justice seems to demand that its organi-
zation, as to grade and number of officers, should corres-
pond with its size. The same principles are applicable
to it as have been urged in reference to the Navy, and
which apply to all military establishments. Ah arrange-
ment will be made with the War Department, by which
the officers of this Corps will hereafter be taken from
the graduates at West Point.
I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, &c.
SAMUEL L. SOUTHAKD.
Of the President of the United Stales, transmit-
ting to Congress a Report of the Secretary of
War, in relation to the Various Tribes of In-
dians within the United States, and recommend-
ing a Plan for their future Location and Go-
vernment: January %7th, 1825.
To the House of Representatives of the United States:
Being deeply impressed with the opinion, that the re-
moval of the Indian tribes from the lands which they now
occupy within the limits of the several states and terri-
tories, to the country lying westward and northward
thereof, within our acknowledged boundaries, is of very
high importance to our Union, and may be accomplish-
ed, on conditions, and in a manner, to promote the inte-
rest and happiness of those tribes, the attention of the
Government has been long drawn, with great solicitude,
to the object. For the removal of the tribes within the
limits of the state of Georgia, the motive has been pe-
culiarly strong, arising from the compact with that state,
whereby the United States are bound to extinguish the
Indian title to the lands within it, whenever it may be
done peaceably and on reasonable conditions. In the
fulfilment of this compact, 1 have thought that the United
-tales should act with a generous spirit, that they should
omit nothing which should comport with a liberal con-
struction of the instrument, and likewise be in accord-
ance with the just rights of those tribes. From the view
which I have taken of the subject, I am satisfied, that,
in the discharge of these important duties, in regard to
both the parties alluded to, the United States will have
to encounter no conflicting interests with either; on the
contrary, that the removal of the tribes from the territo-
ry which they now inhabit, to that which was designated
in the message at the commencement of the session,
which would accomplish the object for Georgia, under a
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Gales, Joseph, 1761-1841. Register of Debates in Congress, Comprising the Leading Debates and Incidents of the Second Session of the Eighteenth Congress, book, 1825; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc30752/m1/432/: accessed November 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.