2012 Annual Report: Opportunities to Reduce Duplication, Overlap and Fragmentation, Achieve Savings, and Enhance Revenue Page: 3 of 426
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(or 5 percent) of the 81 areas GAO identified were addressed; 60 (or 74
percent) were partially addressed; and 17 (or 21 percent) were not
addressed.4 In addition, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
instructed agencies to consider areas of duplication or overlap identified
by GAO and others in their fiscal year 2013 budget submissions and
What GAO Found This report is divided into two sections. Section I presents 32 areas in
which we found evidence of duplication, overlap, or fragmentation among
federal government programs. Section II of this report summarizes 19
additional opportunities for agencies or Congress to consider taking
action that could either reduce the cost of government operations or
enhance revenue collections for the Treasury.
To find areas where duplication might exist, GAO's work begins, in many
cases, by identifying fragmentation-that is, those circumstances in which
more than one federal agency (or more than one organization within an
agency) is involved in the same broad area of national interest. In some
instances of fragmentation, we find overlap-that is, programs that have
similar goals, devise similar strategies and activities to achieve those
goals, or target similar users. Duplication occurs when two or more
agencies or programs are engaged in the same activities or provide the
same services to the same beneficiaries. In many cases, the existence of
unnecessary duplication, overlap, or fragmentation can be difficult to
estimate with precision due to a lack of data on programs and activities.
Where information has not been available that would provide conclusive
evidence of duplication, overlap, or fragmentation, we often refer to
"potential duplication," and where appropriate we suggest actions that
agencies or Congress could take to either reduce that potential or to
improve the accuracy and accessibility of information about program
operations, performance, and results. In some instances of duplication,
overlap, or fragmentation, it may be appropriate for multiple agencies or
entities to be involved in the same programmatic or policy area due to the
nature or magnitude of the federal effort. However, the areas discussed in
4An issue area was considered "addressed" if all actions needed in that area were
addressed; "partially addressed" if at least one action needed in that area showed some
progress toward implementation, but not all actions were addressed; and "not addressed"
if none of the actions needed in that area were addressed.
GAO-12-342SP 2012 Annual Report
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United States. Government Accountability Office. 2012 Annual Report: Opportunities to Reduce Duplication, Overlap and Fragmentation, Achieve Savings, and Enhance Revenue, report, February 28, 2012; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc301551/m1/3/: accessed January 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.