A Comparative Study of the Old Physical Training and Modern Physical Education to Determine the Status of Physical Activity as an Integral Part of the Modern Education Program Page: 10
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"The early R can possessed saomne traits in common with the Spartan.
He was first of all a nma of affairs, intensely practical and interest-
ed in things whose usefulness was apparent. stronger to the Greek
passion for beauty, he considered vague and worthless the notion of
harmonious development as something desirable for its own sake. Idu-
cation should fit a man for his work in the world. It was to make him
a good citisen and a capable soldier, ready to play his part in public
life. Bodily exercise was desirable only as it gave robust health and
prepared for military service."11
The father had undisputed control over the members of his family and
each family was expected to serve Rome and raise robust children with
Romen idetls. Since there were no schools, it wea imperative that the
home give physical, moral, and religious training, and to instill pride,
honesty, courage, industry, and loyalty in the child. The games of child-
hood were played with balls, oerts, tops, hoops, stilts, and pets.
Ever citizen between the age of seventeen and sixty, except those
of the lowest class, were subject to military service. It was the duty
of each father to train his son. This included training for strength,
agility, endurance, and hardiness and skill in the use of the sword,
spear, shield, javelin, horsemanship, and marching. In their play, the
boys ompeted in swiarmng, wrestling, boxing, running, and jumping.
In the third century before Christ, a new culture arose from outside
influences and spread rapidly. Wealth displaced poverty; schools were
established; and military service ceased to be a part of national dis-
cipline. Greek gymnastics were introduced, but due to the growth of
luxury and the decline of the citisen's anay in favor of a professional
army, they were never aoepted by the masses. Muoh interest was likewise
manifested in the national sports that were arising.
1Leonerd, istorY of Physical Educat ion, p. 28.
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Bryson, Lida Kate. A Comparative Study of the Old Physical Training and Modern Physical Education to Determine the Status of Physical Activity as an Integral Part of the Modern Education Program, thesis, August 1937; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29862/m1/14/: accessed June 26, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; .