Video Marketplace: Competition Is Evolving, and Government Reporting Should Be Reevaluated Page: 11 of 44
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television and movie production studios, broadcast networks, and cable
networks. The seven companies and some of their holdings include:
* CBS: CBS (broadcast network), CBS Television Studios, Showtime;
* Discovery Communications: Discovery Channel, TLC, A&E, Animal
* Disney: ABC (broadcast network), ESPN, Disney Channel, Walt
* NBCUniversal: NBC (broadcast network), Universal Pictures, USA
Network, Telemundo Television Studios, The Weather Channel;
* News Corporation: FOX (broadcast network), FOX News Channel,
20th Century Fox, 20th Century Fox Television;
* Time Warner: The CW Network (broadcast network), CNN, HBO,
TBS, Warner Brothers Studios; and
* Viacom: MTV, Comedy Central, Nickelodeon, Paramount Pictures.
We previously reported that the major broadcast networks (ABC, CBS,
FOX, and NBC) and their affiliated studios produced from 76 to 86
percent of prime-time programming hours in 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2009,
with the remaining hours coming from independent producers.10 FCC
similarly reported that the production studios of major media and
entertainment companies, which also hold broadcast and cable networks,
often create and license television programs and movies. This pattern
does not hold for all companies. For example, Discovery Communications
does not own a major television or movie studio and Sony Corporation,
another large media and entertainment company, operates a television
and movie studio, but does not operate a broadcast or cable network.
The concentration of content production among a handful of large media
and entertainment companies has changed little in recent years. We
compared the ownership of major broadcast and cable networks from
2005 through 2012, and found little change in the pattern of ownership
10GAO, Media Programming: Factors Influencing the Availability of Independent
Programming in Television and Programming Decisions in Radio, GAO-10-369
(Washington, D.C.: Mar. 17, 2010).
GAO-13-576 Video Competition
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United States. Government Accountability Office. Video Marketplace: Competition Is Evolving, and Government Reporting Should Be Reevaluated, report, June 25, 2013; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc298600/m1/11/: accessed December 13, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.