The Impacts and Costs of Climate Change Page: 53
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The Impacts and Costs of Climate Change
Table 11 Available monetary estimates of ancillary benefits* (Defra 2002)
Study Country Average Coverage of Study
HAIKU/TAF (1999) USA 1 Health effects from NOx, incl PM, excl 03
ICF/PREMIERE/Holmes et al USA 1 Health effects from NOx, incl PM, excl 03
PREMIERE/ Dowlatabadi et al USA 1 Health effects from NOx, incl PM, excl 03
Burtraw et al (1999) USA 1 Health effects from S02 & NOx
Coal/PREMIERE (1997) USA 2 Health effects from NOx, incl PM, excl 03
Coal/ PREMIERE/ RIA (1996) USA 7 Health effects from NOx, incl PM, excl 03
EXMOD (1995) USA 7 Health, visibility, environmental effects
from NOx, S02, incl PM excl 03
Goulder/ Scherage & Leary USA 8 Health effects from S02, N02, CO, Pb
Abt Assocs. & Pechan-Avantil USA 10 Health, visibility and materials damage from
Grp (1999) S02, N02, 03,CO,PM,Pb
Boyd et al (1995) USA 10 Health & visibility effects from S02, N02,
03, CO, PM,Pb
Scheraga & Leary (1993) USA 11 Health effects from TSP, PM, SOx, NOx,
CO & VOC
Garbaccio et al (2000) China 13 Health effects from S02 & PM
Cifuentes et al (2000) Chile 16 Health effects from S02, NOx, CO, HC, PM
Viscusi et al (1994) USA 22 Health and visibility effects from S02, N02,
CO, HC, PPM, dust
Barker & Rosendahl (2000) W.Europe 39 Humand & animal health, materials damage,
vegetation effects from SO02, NOx, PM
Brendemoen & Vennemo (1994) Norway 63 Health & environmental effects from S02,
NOx, CO, PM, C02, VOC, CH4, N02,
traffic noise, road maintenance, congestion,
Dessus & O'Conner (1999) Chile 66 Health effects from 7 air pollutants (not
Ekins (1996) Not 70 Not specified
Lutter & Shogren (1999) USA 77 Not specified
Aunan et al (2000) Kanudia & Hungary 130 Health, materials damage, vegetation.
Loulou (1998) Damage from TSP, S02, NOx, CO, VOC,
C02, CH4, N02
This table was published by Defra in 'Ancillary Effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies' October 2002.
Defra adapted the information from OECD (2001), IPCC (2001) & Burtraw & Toman (2000)
** Conversion based on UK Financial Times Exchange Rate 11/11/04 1 EURO = 0.70
Another recent study57 concludes that about 50% of the costs of the Kyoto target can be re-gained in
terms of reduced costs of air pollution control.
Other Environmental Improvements
In addition to the air pollution benefits above, there may be other environmental benefits from low
carbon policies. For example:
5 Exploring the ancillary benefits of the Kyoto Protocol for air pollution in Europe - Energy Policy; D.P. van Vuuren et al.
AEA Technology Environment, August 2005
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Watkiss, Paul; Downing, Tom; Handley, Claire & Butterfield, Ruth. The Impacts and Costs of Climate Change, text, September 2005; Oxford, England. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29337/m1/64/?rotate=90: accessed October 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .