Hospital Emergency Departments: Bibliography (GAO-09-348SP, April 30, 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-347 Page: 1 of 22
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Accountability * Integrity * Reliability
United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548
Hospital Emergency Departments: Bibliography (GAO-09-348SP, April 30, 2009), an
E-supplement to GAO-09-347.
Read the Full Report: Hospital Emergency Departments: Crowding Continues to Occur, and Some
Patients Wait Longer than Recommended Time Frames (GAO-09-347, April 30, 2009).
This document presents a bibliography of a literature review conducted as part of our work
on emergency department crowding (GAO-09-347). As part of our work to analyze and report
on information made available since 2003 about (1) three indicators of emergency
department crowding-ambulance diversion, wait times, and patient boarding,' and
(2) factors that contribute to emergency department crowding, we conducted a literature
review of 197 articles, including articles published in peer-reviewed and other periodicals,
publications from professional, research, and other organizations, and reports issued by
federal and state agencies. In examining the information made available since 2003 about
indicators of crowding during our literature review, we also analyzed articles for what was
reported on the effect of crowding on patient quality of care and proposed strategies to
address crowding. In order to obtain these articles, we conducted structured searches of
16 research databases and obtained articles identified as a result of interviews with federal
officials, professional and research organizations, and subject-matter experts, and through
searches of related Web sites.2
We reviewed 197 articles, publications, and reports (which we call articles) on emergency
department crowding published on or between January 1, 2003, and August 31, 2008. This
e-supplement lists each article we reviewed for this engagement and is arranged in four
separate sections based on the type of article: (1) articles reporting results of quantitative
analysis, (2) commentaries, (3) articles reporting on literature reviews, or (4) other articles,
which include articles published on or between January 1, 2003, and August 31, 2008, that
were identified as a result of our interviews with federal officials, professional and research
organizations, and subject-matter experts. This fourth category, "other articles," includes
articles that are published by professional associations to report results of their surveys.
Additional information about the methodology used in the literature review is contained in
our report, Hospital Emergency Departments: Crowding Continues to Occur, and Some
Patients Wait Longer than Recommended Time Frames (GAO-09-347).
Each section of articles is alphabetized by the author's last name or by the title of the article
if there is no author.
'Boarding in the emergency department refers to a patient remaining in the emergency department
after the decision to admit to the hospital or transfer the patient to another facility has been made.
2We did not include articles that were published outside of the United States, used subjects or data
from outside the United States, were only available in an abstract form, focused on issues other than
day-to-day emergency department operations, or were unrelated to emergency department crowding.
GAO-09-348SP Emergency Department Crowding/Bibliography
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United States. Government Accountability Office. Hospital Emergency Departments: Bibliography (GAO-09-348SP, April 30, 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-347, text, April 30, 2009; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc290878/m1/1/: accessed December 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.