JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory, Volume 24, Number 2, 2004 Page: 283
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Nancy K. Miller
6. The television footage is available from Vanderbilt Television News
7. The following daythe New York Times reported the story in much the same
language, emphasizing the mistake, and making the raid an entirely Vietnamese
affair, although the possibility of American participation crept in: "From the
ground it was unclear whether the air controller was American or South
Vietnamese" (9 June, 1972, Al, 10).
8. In their important essay on this photograph, "Public Identity and Collec-
tive Memory in U.S. Iconic Photography: The Image of 'Accidental Napalm,"'
John Lucaites and Robert Hariman argue, "The substitution of photos provides
a double compensation: Kim has been given a beautiful child to replace her own
damaged childhood, and the second image is given to the public in recompense
for its past discomfort. The baby also replaces the other children in the original
scene-those running down the road and those who didn't make it. The war is
over, and children who could be running in terror for their small, vulnerable lives
are now sleeping quietly in their mothers' arms. Moreover, where the earlier
children were Kim's siblings, and so the sign of collective identity, this child is
her child, her most dear possession and a sign of proprietary relationships
essential to liberal individualism. The transformation is complete: from past
trauma to present joy, and from the terrors of collective history to the quiet
individualism of private life" (48).
9. Having defected to Canada from Cuba, where she had been sent by the
Vietnamese government to pursue her studies, Kim makes the journey to the
United States-described as a "pilgrimage"-where she encounters for the first
time (with the camera recording) the people who saved her life-the doctors and
the photographer, who was in fact the person who took her from the burning road
to a hospital twenty-five years earlier. It's in this process that Kim learns for the
first time what happened to her. The camera visually situates Kim far from
Vietnam at home in Canada, writing in a notebook while snow-a signifier of
geographical distance-falls outside the window.
10. As reported in the Times, "She pressed her hand to her stomach and
clenched her jaw over and over to keep from crying as taps was played" (12 Nov.
1996: A20). I have to confess that when taps was played in the documentary, I
could feel myself choking up: my somewhat sentimental responsiveness to taps
comes not from its military origins, however, but from the fact that it was played
every night at the summer camp I attended throughout most of my childhood.
11. The Vietnamese language does not have a past tense per se, although it
has other markers of past time. This linguistic factor probably affects Kim Phuc's
discourse in English; but it's also true that for her the trauma remains in a present
12. Lin uses somewhat different language in an essay published in The New
York Review ofBooks right before the appearance of Boundaries. Lin states that
the essay about the monument was written in the fall of 1982 as the memorial was
being completed and then put it away and never looked at it again.
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Association of Teachers of Advanced Composition (U.S.). JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory, Volume 24, Number 2, 2004, periodical, 2004; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28644/m1/29/: accessed April 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .