Analyzing Patterns Within Academic and Legal Definitions: a Qualitative Content Analysis of the Term "Cyberbullying" Page: 30
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for cyberbullying to be valid even if only a single occurrence took place if it accompanied by
a traditional encounter outside of the digital space.
Like age, gender as factor in predicting cyberbullying was a topic in many studies
(Li, 2007, Wade and Beran, 2011; Ang & Goh, 2010). Despite the rate at which it was
examined in research, results are mixed. Some studies suggested that, while boys may be
more involved in traditional bullying, females are more present in cyberbullying (Agatson
et al., 2007, Wade and Beran, 2011). Li (2007) and Wade and Beran (2011) suggest that
while boys and girls offended at similar rates, girls are often victims of cyberbullying more
often than their male counterparts. However, some studies (Hinduja & Patchin, 2008)
suggested that gender does not play a significant role in the prevalence in cyberbullying.
Gradinger, Strohmeier and Spiel (2010) note that "...we speculate that gender differences
in cyberbullying research might at least partly be attributed to different measurement
methods used" (p. 9). As with many issues of inconsistency in the present body of
literature, methodology and definitional issues may be more of a contributing factor.
Ang and Goh (2010) examined the relationship between empathy and cyberbullying
and found that boys and girls that had low levels of both affective empathy (being able to
share another's feelings) and cognitive empathy (being aware of other's feelings) reported
higher levels of cyberbullying involvement. Of boys who showed high levels of affective
empathy, those who had lower levels of cognitive empathy had higher cyberbullying scores
than those with high levels of affective empathy and higher levels of cognitive empathy.
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Winn, Matthew R. Analyzing Patterns Within Academic and Legal Definitions: a Qualitative Content Analysis of the Term "Cyberbullying", dissertation, August 2013; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283860/m1/31/: accessed December 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .