Analyzing Patterns Within Academic and Legal Definitions: a Qualitative Content Analysis of the Term "Cyberbullying" Page: 14
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of experts convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, David-Ferdon and
Feldman (2007) state that,
This lack of a standardized operational definition make it difficult to pool results
and draw conclusions across the limited studies currently available. It is a problem
further compounded by a lack of a gold standard to measure electronic aggression.
These definitional and measurement impediments must be addressed for
researchers to draw accurate conclusions about the incidence, prevalence, and risk
of protective factors associated with electronic aggression. (p. S2)
In addition, Vandebosh and Van Cleemput (2008) suggest that for an action to be
considered true cyberbullying, it must meet the following criteria:
They are intended to hurt (by the perpetrator); are perceived hurtful (by the
victim); are part of a repetitive pattern of negative offline or online actions; and are
performed in a relationship characterized by a power imbalance (based on real-life
power criteria, such as physical strength or age, and/or on ICT-related criteria such
as technological know-how and anonymity). (p. 449)
Within the definition of cyberbullying, there also exists specific behaviors that are
linked with the term. These actions or behaviors bring with them their own additional
definitions. Newey et al. (2010) compiled types of cyberbullying which were based on
available studies, which included:
2. Online harassment
3. Identity theft
7. Cyber stalking
8. Happy slapping
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Winn, Matthew R. Analyzing Patterns Within Academic and Legal Definitions: a Qualitative Content Analysis of the Term "Cyberbullying", dissertation, August 2013; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283860/m1/15/: accessed May 27, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .