Fire prevention on airplanes. Part 1 Page: 3 of 48
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N.A.C.A. Technical Memorandum No. 536
a) The search for new fuels, less inflammable than gasoline,
but still enough like it to be used in existing engines, without
necessitating any great changes in them.
b) On the other hand, the adoption of the heavy fuels al-
ready on the market and the construction of engines capable of
Special Fuels and the Results Obtained with Tham
The former method consists in first choosing a suitable
"safety fuel" and then adapting the engines (particularly the
carburetors) to it. This method has been the subject of numerous
investigations. Before analyzing the results, it is well to con-
sider how to characterize the relative degree of safety of a fuel.
In this connection, one usually has recourse to the notions
of the flashing point and of the burning point. The flashing
point is determined by means of the so-called Luchaire closed-
cup test. The fuel to be tested is placed in the cup. The cup
is covered by a lid with a funnel, and the temperature is meas-
ured to which the fuel must be raised in order to cause the
emitted mixture of air and vapor to be ignited by a flame placed
at the mouth of the funnel. The burning point, the measurement
of which is less accurate than that of the flashing point, is de-
termined by the open-cup test. The temperature is then measured
to which the fuel must be heated in order to catch fire when its
open surface is brought into contact with a flame, and in order
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Sabatier, J. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part 1, report, October 1929; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277463/m1/3/: accessed September 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.